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31 records – page 1 of 4.

1994-1995 influenza season: Canadian laboratory diagnoses and strain characterization.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature214055
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 1995 Oct 30;21(20):181-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-30-1995
Author
J M Weber
Author Affiliation
National Laboratory for Special Pathogens, Bureau of Microbiology, LCDC, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 1995 Oct 30;21(20):181-5
Date
Oct-30-1995
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Influenza A virus - isolation & purification
Influenza B virus - isolation & purification
Influenza Vaccines - administration & dosage
Influenza, Human - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Seasons
PubMed ID
8563690 View in PubMed
Less detail

1998-1999 influenza season: Canadian laboratory diagnoses and strain characterization.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature199850
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 1999 Nov 1;25(21):177-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-1999
Author
Y. Li
Author Affiliation
Respiratory Viruses Section, Bureau of Microbiology, LCDC, Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health, Winnipeg, Man.
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 1999 Nov 1;25(21):177-81
Date
Nov-1-1999
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Humans
Influenza A virus - classification - isolation & purification
Influenza B virus - isolation & purification
Influenza, Human - diagnosis - epidemiology - virology
Population Surveillance - methods
Seasons
PubMed ID
10624033 View in PubMed
Less detail

Appropriate measures of influenza immunization program effectiveness.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166958
Source
Vaccine. 2007 Jan 22;25(6):967-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-22-2007
Author
Jeffrey C Kwong
Thérèse A Stukel
Allison J McGeer
Douglas G Manuel
Source
Vaccine. 2007 Jan 22;25(6):967-9
Date
Jan-22-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Humans
Immunization Programs - standards
Influenza A virus - isolation & purification
Influenza B virus - isolation & purification
Influenza Vaccines - therapeutic use
Influenza, Human - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Ontario - epidemiology
Public Health
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Groll and Thomson's evaluation of the effectiveness of Ontario's Universal Influenza Immunization Campaign used per capita cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza. We argue that these data are susceptible to various biases and should not be used as an outcome measure. Laboratory data are traditionally used to identify the presence of influenza activity rather than to identify levels of influenza activity. A better measure of viral activity is the proportion of influenza tests positive; whereas the weekly proportion of tests positive was relatively consistent, a marked increase over time in the numbers of laboratory-confirmed cases paralleled an increase in the number of tests performed. Regardless, for evaluating universal influenza immunization program effectiveness, other established and available measures employed in previous studies describing the epidemiology of influenza should be used instead of laboratory data.
Notes
Comment On: Vaccine. 2006 Jun 12;24(24):5245-5016624458
PubMed ID
17052813 View in PubMed
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Clinical presentation of influenza in unselected children treated as outpatients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151995
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 May;28(5):372-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2009
Author
Heli Silvennoinen
Ville Peltola
Pasi Lehtinen
Raija Vainionpää
Terho Heikkinen
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 May;28(5):372-5
Date
May-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Ambulatory Care
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Community-Acquired Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology - virology
Female
Fever - complications
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Infant
Influenza A virus - isolation & purification
Influenza B virus - isolation & purification
Influenza, Human - diagnosis - epidemiology - virology
Male
Nasal Mucosa - virology
Prospective Studies
Seasons
Abstract
Influenza causes a great disease burden on children especially in the outpatient setting. The signs and symptoms of influenza in unselected children treated as outpatients have not been previously published.
We assessed the clinical presentation of influenza in a prospective study of respiratory infections in preenrolled cohorts of children or =39.0 degrees C. Among children or =40.0 degrees C. Seventy-seven percent of the children had cough and 78% had rhinitis. In children 7 to 13 years of age, only 39% had headache and 13% had myalgia.
High fever is a prominent sign of influenza in children, and the clinical presentation of influenza is most severe in children
PubMed ID
19295464 View in PubMed
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Effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccine in children aged 9 months to 3 years: an observational cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139066
Source
Lancet Infect Dis. 2011 Jan;11(1):23-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2011
Author
Santtu Heinonen
Heli Silvennoinen
Pasi Lehtinen
Raija Vainionpää
Thedi Ziegler
Terho Heikkinen
Author Affiliation
Department of Paediatrics, Turku University Hospital, Finland.
Source
Lancet Infect Dis. 2011 Jan;11(1):23-9
Date
Jan-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antigens, Viral - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Infant
Influenza A virus - isolation & purification
Influenza B virus - isolation & purification
Influenza Vaccines - administration & dosage - adverse effects - immunology
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - prevention & control - virology
Nasal Mucosa - virology
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
RNA, Viral - genetics - isolation & purification
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Vaccines, Inactivated - administration & dosage - adverse effects - immunology
Abstract
Few prospectively collected data are available to support the effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines in children younger than 2 years. We aimed to establish the effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine against laboratory-confirmed influenza A and B infections in a cohort of children younger than 3 years.
In a prospective cohort study during the influenza season of 2007-08 in Turku, Finland, between Jan 14 and April 9, 2008, we assessed the effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine against laboratory-confirmed influenza A and B infections in children aged 9 months to 3 years. Our study was part of a clinical trial on antiviral treatment of influenza in children (ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00593502). The vaccine was given as part of the Finnish vaccination programme as a 0?5 mL injection. Children enrolled into our study through mailed announcements and local advertisements were examined every time they had fever or signs of respiratory infection. No exclusion criteria were used for enrolment. Influenza was diagnosed with viral culture, antigen detection, and RT-PCR assays of nasal swab specimens. Vaccination status of children was determined by parental report. We calculated the primary effectiveness of influenza vaccination by comparing the proportions of infections in fully vaccinated and unvaccinated children in the follow-up cohort.
We enrolled 631 children into our study with a mean age of 2?13 years (range 9-40 months). Seven (5%) of 154 fully vaccinated children and 61 (13%) of 456 unvaccinated children contracted influenza during the study (effectiveness 66%, 95% CI 29-84; p=0?003). In the subgroup of children younger than 2 years, four (4%) of 96 fully vaccinated children and 21 (12%) of 172 unvaccinated children contracted influenza (66%, 9-88, p=0?03). We were unable to record any adverse events associated with the vaccination of the children in our study.
Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine was effective in preventing influenza in young children, including those younger than 2 years. Our findings suggest that influenza vaccine recommendations should be reassessed in most countries.
F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
Notes
Comment In: Lancet Infect Dis. 2011 Jan;11(1):2-321106444
Comment In: Lancet Infect Dis. 2011 Sep;11(9):657; author reply 657-821867949
Comment In: Lancet Infect Dis. 2011 Sep;11(9):656; author reply 657-821867947
Comment In: Lancet Infect Dis. 2011 Sep;11(9):656-7; author reply 657-821867946
PubMed ID
21106443 View in PubMed
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Estimating vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed influenza using a sentinel physician network: results from the 2005-2006 season of dual A and B vaccine mismatch in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166757
Source
Vaccine. 2007 Apr 12;25(15):2842-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-12-2007
Author
D M Skowronski
C. Masaro
T L Kwindt
A. Mak
M. Petric
Y. Li
R. Sebastian
M. Chong
T. Tam
G. De Serres
Author Affiliation
Epidemiology Services, BC Centre for Disease Control, Canada. danuta.skowronski@bccdc.ca
Source
Vaccine. 2007 Apr 12;25(15):2842-51
Date
Apr-12-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Humans
Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype - isolation & purification
Influenza B virus - isolation & purification
Influenza Vaccines - therapeutic use
Influenza, Human - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control - virology
Male
Middle Aged
Physicians, Family
Sentinel Surveillance
Abstract
We report a case-control design using a sentinel physician network to estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory-confirmed, medically attended influenza (LC-MAI) and provide results for the 2005-2006 season of dual A and B vaccine mismatch in Canada.
Participants were patients >or=5 years of age presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI) to a sentinel physician in British Columbia, Canada between November 1, 2005 and April 30, 2006. Cases were participants in whom influenza was identified; controls tested negative for influenza A and B by PCR, R-mix and culture. Isolates were characterized by gene-sequencing and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assays. Odds ratios (OR) for LC-MAI in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated persons were derived with adjustment for age and chronic conditions. VE was estimated as [1-OR (vaccinated/unvaccinated)].
The sample included 442 patient visits: median age was 26 years, 10% were >or=65 years, 15% had a chronic condition and 22% received the 2005-2006 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine >or=2 weeks before ILI onset. Two hundred and six participants were positive for influenza; 107 (52%) had influenza A/H3N2 and 99 (48%) had influenza B/Victoria lineage. Gene sequencing identified mutations away from the vaccine strain at key antigenic binding sites of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of H3N2 isolates; the neuraminidase (NA) protein was conserved. Based on HI assays, three-quarters of influenza A and all B isolates were mismatched to the 2005-2006 vaccine. Point estimates for VE against LC-MAI were in the range of 50 to 70% for both types of influenza.
2005-2006 was the third consecutive season of vaccine mismatch based on varying HA for the A/H3N2 component and the third also for the B component since 2001. Vaccine mismatch resulted in diminished VE but substantial cross-protection. More timely detection of drift variants through gene sequencing of isolates facilitates interpretation of VE results. Since it may be more antigenically conserved, the vaccine content and contribution of NA to overall VE should be further evaluated for both A and B components. Infrastructure for real-time epidemiologic assessment of vaccine performance is important annually and in preparation for a pandemic.
PubMed ID
17081662 View in PubMed
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Experience with oseltamivir in the control of a nursing home influenza B outbreak.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195286
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 2001 Mar 1;27(5):37-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1-2001
Author
R. Parker
N. Loewen
D. Skowronski
Author Affiliation
Simon Fraser Health Region, B.C. Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, British Columbia.
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 2001 Mar 1;27(5):37-40
Date
Mar-1-2001
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetamides - therapeutic use
Antiviral agents - therapeutic use
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cross Infection - prevention & control
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control
Humans
Influenza B virus - isolation & purification
Influenza, Human - drug therapy - epidemiology - virology
Nursing Homes
Oseltamivir
Abstract
Oseltamivir prophylaxis was very effective in protecting nursing home residents from ILI and in halting this outbreak of influenza B. A portion of the total ILI cases may have been due to influenza A, as this strain was isolated in one resident. The 10% attack rate in this facility, controlled with oseltamivir, compares favourably with another influenza B outbreak in a similar facility in the same region, over the same time frame (ILI onset 27 December to 17 January). Oseltamivir prophylaxis was not used to manage this second outbreak of laboratory-confirmed influenza B. Of the 236 residents, 45 developed ILI for an overall attack rate of 19%, nearly double the rate in the oseltamivir-controlled setting (10%). While oseltamivir was effective in controlling influenza B in this outbreak, further experience and evaluation is required before it can be routinely recommended for prophylaxis of influenza in nursing home outbreaks. Although earlier attempts by others using oseltamivir in the control of influenza A outbreaks have also met with success, it is not yet licensed for this purpose. Compared to amantadine, oseltamivir has a relatively high cost for the control of influenza A outbreaks and this may continue to limit its wider acceptance. The cost-effectiveness of oseltamivir in the control of influenza B outbreaks needs to be specifically addressed given the typically milder nature of influenza B strains. However, such a distinction is not clinically reliable and elderly residents of long-term care facilities remain vulnerable to serious complications associated with influenza infection in general. An alternate agent for influenza chemoprophylaxis that is effective against both influenza A and B, is easily administered and has few side effects, could greatly enhance current prevention and control measures and warrants serious assessment. The spread of this outbreak from the geographically separate ward to other areas of the facility in which residents had not received prophylaxis, underscores the likely role of staff as a vehicle for transmission during facility outbreaks. While accurate staff ILI rates could not be determined, their immunization rates were low, and many staff were ill during the outbreak. Isolation of residents with ILI and prophylaxis of non-ill residents on the initial outbreak wards was insufficient to prevent the spread of the outbreak, although it was subsequently halted once prophylaxis was extended to all residents. In view of the uncertainty over this medication's widespread use, in the absence of licensure or previous studies demonstrating its effectiveness in the prophylaxis and control of influenza B outbreaks, initiation of oseltamivir prophylaxis was staggered by ward. In a declared influenza A outbreak, the protocol in a long term care facility is to initiate amantadine prophylaxis on all residents, rather than ward-by-ward. While anti-viral prophylaxis may be an effective secondary control measure in the management of influenza outbreaks, optimal primary prevention would be more effective. This would require increased vaccine coverage of residents and particularly of staff, who play an important role in the importation and transmission of influenza within these facilities.
PubMed ID
11260987 View in PubMed
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Heterogeneous influenza activity across Europe during the winter of 2002-2003.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30559
Source
Euro Surveill. 2003 Dec;8(12):230-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2003
Author
W J Paget
T J Meerhoff
H. Rebelo de Andrade
Author Affiliation
European Influenza Surveillance Scheme co-ordination centre, Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Source
Euro Surveill. 2003 Dec;8(12):230-9
Date
Dec-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Disease Outbreaks - statistics & numerical data
Europe - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Influenza A virus - isolation & purification
Influenza B virus - isolation & purification
Influenza, Human - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Seasons
Abstract
Influenza activity varied across Europe during the 2002-2003 season both in terms of the intensity of clinical activity and the circulating virus types/subtypes. Influenza B was generally predominant in the 'western' parts of Europe (Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom and Ireland) and influenza A (H3N2) in the 'central' and 'eastern' areas (Germany, Italy, Denmark, Switzerland, Poland, Slovenia, the Slovak Republic, the Netherlands). A number of countries experienced mixed seasons, first experiencing activity associated with influenza B and then with influenza A (Belgium, France and Spain). Generally, countries where influenza B was predominant had low (compared to historical data) levels of intensity (a mild season) and longer periods of influenza activity compared to countries where influenza A (H3N2) was predominant. A number of countries, all where influenza A (H3N2) was predominant, reported high levels of intensity compared to historical data: the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany and Poland. In the six countries where age-specific incidence rates were available, the highest rates were observed among those aged 0-14 years. The influenza virus strains circulating in Europe had a good match with the virus strains in the influenza vaccine. A small number of isolates (A/Fujian/411/2002 (H3N2)-like) were reported at the end of the season that had a reduced reactivity to anti-sera of the vaccine strain. The composition of the 2003-2004 influenza vaccine is the same as during the 2002-2003 season.
PubMed ID
14724332 View in PubMed
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Incidence of influenza in Finnish children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183351
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003 Oct;22(10 Suppl):S204-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2003
Author
Terho Heikkinen
Thedi Ziegler
Ville Peltola
Pasi Lehtinen
Pia Toikka
Mikko Lintu
Tuomas Jartti
Taina Juvén
Janne Kataja
Jaakko Pulkkinen
Leena Kainulainen
Tuomo Puhakka
Taina Routi
Author Affiliation
Departments of Pediatrics, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003 Oct;22(10 Suppl):S204-6
Date
Oct-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Influenza A virus - isolation & purification
Influenza B virus - isolation & purification
Influenza, Human - diagnosis - epidemiology
Male
Prospective Studies
Respiratory Tract Infections - epidemiology - virology
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Abstract
Influenza is an important cause of respiratory illness in children, but data on virologically confirmed influenza infections in children treated as outpatients are limited.
We carried out a prospective cohort study of normal children younger than 13 years (n = 1338) in the winter of 2000 to 2001. During the study period of 32 weeks, the children were examined at the study clinic whenever they had fever or signs of respiratory infection. Nasal swabs were obtained during each episode of infection for determination of the viral etiology of the illness.
The overall attack rate of influenza in the cohort was 18.8%. Influenza viruses were isolated from the children from the beginning of November 2000 through May 2001. Virtually in each week between mid-November and the end of April (a period of 24 weeks), influenza viruses accounted for at least 5% of all respiratory infections in the children. During the peak of the epidemic, the percentage of influenza-positive children exceeded 20%.
This study confirms the important role of influenza as a cause of acute respiratory infections in children, even in winters of mild or moderate influenza activity. The study also shows that influenza viruses may circulate in the community at substantial levels much longer than previously thought.
Notes
Comment In: Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004 May;23(5):48015131481
PubMed ID
14551475 View in PubMed
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Influenza activity--Canada, 1987-88 season.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature233481
Source
Can Dis Wkly Rep. 1988 Feb 13;14(6):21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-13-1988
Author
E. Bollegraaf
Source
Can Dis Wkly Rep. 1988 Feb 13;14(6):21
Date
Feb-13-1988
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada
Child
Disease Outbreaks
Humans
Influenza A virus - isolation & purification
Influenza B virus - isolation & purification
Influenza, Human - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Notes
Erratum In: Can Dis Wkly Rep 1988 Mar 19;14(11):48
PubMed ID
3233675 View in PubMed
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31 records – page 1 of 4.