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1951 influenza epidemic, England and Wales, Canada, and the United States.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169257
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Apr;12(4):661-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2006
Author
Cécile Viboud
Theresa Tam
Douglas Fleming
Mark A Miller
Lone Simonsen
Author Affiliation
National Institutes of Health, Fogarty International Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. viboudc@mail.nih.gov
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Apr;12(4):661-8
Date
Apr-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Disease Outbreaks - history
England - epidemiology
History, 20th Century
Humans
Infant
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - history
Middle Aged
Seasons
United States - epidemiology
Wales - epidemiology
Abstract
Influenza poses a continuing public health threat in epidemic and pandemic seasons. The 1951 influenza epidemic (A/H1N1) caused an unusually high death toll in England; in particular, weekly deaths in Liverpool even surpassed those of the 1918 pandemic. We further quantified the death rate of the 1951 epidemic in 3 countries. In England and Canada, we found that excess death rates from pneumonia and influenza and all causes were substantially higher for the 1951 epidemic than for the 1957 and 1968 pandemics (by > or =50%). The age-specific pattern of deaths in 1951 was consistent with that of other interpandemic seasons; no age shift to younger age groups, reminiscent of pandemics, occurred in the death rate. In contrast to England and Canada, the 1951 epidemic was not particularly severe in the United States. Why this epidemic was so severe in some areas but not others remains unknown and highlights major gaps in our understanding of interpandemic influenza.
Notes
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PubMed ID
16704816 View in PubMed
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The 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic: the role of threat, coping, and media trust on vaccination intentions in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117388
Source
J Health Commun. 2013;18(3):278-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Sheena Aislinn Taha
Kimberly Matheson
Hymie Anisman
Author Affiliation
Department of Neuroscience, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. sheena_taha@carleton.ca
Source
J Health Commun. 2013;18(3):278-90
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype - immunology
Influenza Vaccines - administration & dosage
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Intention
Male
Mass Media
Pandemics - prevention & control
Public Opinion
Questionnaires
Risk assessment
Trust
Vaccination - psychology
Abstract
Swine flu (H1N1) reached pandemic proportions in 2009, yet ambivalence was met concerning intentions to be vaccinated. The present investigation determined predictors of perceived H1N1 contraction risk and vaccination intentions among Canadian adults (N = 1,027) responding to an online questionnaire. The relatively low rate of vaccination intent (30.12%, and 34.99% being unsure of their intent) was related to a sense of invulnerability regarding illness contraction and symptom severity. Most individuals were skeptical that H1N1 would be widespread, believing that less than 10% of the population would contract H1N1. Yet, they also indicated that their attitudes would change once a single person they knew contracted the illness. Also, worry regarding H1N1 was related to self-contraction risk and odds of individuals seeking vaccination. Moreover, vaccination intent was related to the perception that the threat was not particularly great, mistrust of the media to provide accurate information regarding H1N1, and whether individuals endorsed problem-focused versus avoidant coping strategies. Given the role media plays in public perceptions related to a health crisis, trust in this outlet and credibility regarding the threat are necessary for adherence to recommended measures to minimize health risk.
PubMed ID
23301849 View in PubMed
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The 2009 H1N1 pandemic response in remote First Nation communities of Subarctic Ontario: barriers and improvements from a health care services perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130157
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70(5):564-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Nadia A Charania
Leonard J S Tsuji
Author Affiliation
Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada. ncharani@uwaterloo.ca
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70(5):564-75
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attitude of Health Personnel
Catchment Area (Health)
Federal Government
Female
Humans
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - prevention & control
Information Dissemination
Male
Medically underserved area
Middle Aged
Ontario
Pandemics - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - ethnology
Professional-Patient Relations
Retrospective Studies
Rural health services - organization & administration
Abstract
To retrospectively examine the barriers faced and opportunities for improvement during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic response experienced by participants responsible for the delivery of health care services in 3 remote and isolated Subarctic First Nation communities of northern Ontario, Canada.
A qualitative community-based participatory approach.
Semi-directed interviews were conducted with adult key informants (n=13) using purposive sampling of participants representing the 3 main sectors responsible for health care services (i.e., federal health centres, provincial hospitals and Band Councils). Data were manually transcribed and coded using deductive and inductive thematic analysis.
Primary barriers reported were issues with overcrowding in houses, insufficient human resources and inadequate community awareness. Main areas for improvement included increasing human resources (i.e., nurses and trained health care professionals), funding for supplies and general community awareness regarding disease processes and prevention.
Government bodies should consider focusing efforts to provide more support in terms of human resources, monies and education. In addition, various government organizations should collaborate to improve housing conditions and timely access to resources. These recommendations should be addressed in future pandemic plans, so that remote western James Bay First Nation communities of Subarctic Ontario and other similar communities can be better prepared for the next public health emergency.
PubMed ID
22030007 View in PubMed
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2009 Pandemic influenza A H1N1 in Alaska: temporal and geographic characteristics of spread and increased risk of hospitalization among Alaska Native and Asian/Pacific Islander people.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136553
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Jan 1;52 Suppl 1:S189-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1-2011
Author
Jay D Wenger
Louisa J Castrodale
Dana L Bruden
James W Keck
Tammy Zulz
Michael G Bruce
Donna A Fearey
Joe McLaughlin
Debby Hurlburt
Kim Boyd Hummel
Sassa Kitka
Steve Bentley
Timothy K Thomas
Rosalyn Singleton
John T Redd
Larry Layne
James E Cheek
Thomas W Hennessy
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA. jdw2@cdc.gov
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Jan 1;52 Suppl 1:S189-97
Date
Jan-1-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alaska - epidemiology
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
Child
Child, Preschool
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Geography
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype - isolation & purification
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - virology
Male
Middle Aged
Pandemics
Population Groups
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Alaska Native people have suffered disproportionately from previous influenza pandemics. We evaluated 3 separate syndromic data sources to determine temporal and geographic patterns of spread of 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 (pH1N1) in Alaska, and reviewed records from persons hospitalized with pH1N1 disease in 3 areas in Alaska to characterize clinical and epidemiologic features of disease in Alaskans. A wave of pH1N1 disease swept through Alaska beginning in most areas in August or early September. In rural regions, where Alaska Native people comprise a substantial proportion of the population, disease occurred earlier than in other regions. Alaska Native people and Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PI) were 2-4 times more likely to be hospitalized than whites. Alaska Native people and other minorities remain at high risk for early and substantial morbidity from pandemic influenza episodes. These findings should be integrated into plans for distribution and use of vaccine and antiviral agents.
PubMed ID
21342894 View in PubMed
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The 2009 Provincial decision to de-emphasize seasonal influenza vaccine in Canada: real-time risk-benefit analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136573
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Mar 15;52(6):829-30; author reply 830-1
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-15-2011
Author
Perry R W Kendall
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Mar 15;52(6):829-30; author reply 830-1
Date
Mar-15-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Humans
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype - immunology
Influenza Vaccines - administration & dosage - adverse effects - immunology
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - prevention & control - virology
Pandemics
Risk assessment
Vaccination - utilization
Notes
Comment On: Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Dec 15;51(12):1380-221067354
PubMed ID
21367739 View in PubMed
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Aboriginal groups seek representation on Pan-Canadian Public Health Network.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147858
Source
CMAJ. 2009 Nov 24;181(11):781-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-24-2009

Accounting for vulnerability to illness and social disadvantage in pandemic critical care triage.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature96997
Source
J Clin Ethics. 2010;21(1):23-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Chris Kaposy
Author Affiliation
Division of Community Health and Humanities, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. christopher.kaposy@med.mun.ca
Source
J Clin Ethics. 2010;21(1):23-9
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Critical Care
Cultural Characteristics
Disaster Planning - trends
Disease Outbreaks
Health Care Rationing - ethics
Health Policy - trends
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype - isolation & purification
Influenza, Human - ethnology - mortality - virology
Intensive Care Units - organization & administration - standards
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Newfoundland and Labrador - epidemiology
Patient Selection - ethics
Prognosis
Risk assessment
Social Class
Triage - methods - organization & administration - standards - trends
Vulnerable Populations
Abstract
In a pandemic situation, resources in intensive care units may be stretched to the breaking point, and critical care triage may become necessary. In such a situation, I argue that a patient's combined vulnerability to illness and social disadvantage should be a justification for giving that patient some priority for critical care. In this article I present an example of a critical care triage protocol that recognizes the moral relevance of vulnerability to illness and social disadvantage, from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
PubMed ID
20465071 View in PubMed
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Accuracy of rapid influenza diagnostic tests: a meta-analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126634
Source
Ann Intern Med. 2012 Apr 3;156(7):500-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-3-2012
Author
Caroline Chartrand
Mariska M G Leeflang
Jessica Minion
Timothy Brewer
Madhukar Pai
Author Affiliation
CHU Sainte-Justine, Université de Montréal, Montreal Chest Institute, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Ann Intern Med. 2012 Apr 3;156(7):500-11
Date
Apr-3-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antigens, Viral - analysis
Canada
Child
Humans
Immunochromatography - methods - standards
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype - immunology - isolation & purification
Influenza, Human - diagnosis
Reference Standards
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Sensitivity and specificity
Virology - methods
Abstract
Timely diagnosis of influenza can help clinical management.
To examine the accuracy of rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) in adults and children with influenza-like illness and evaluate factors associated with higher accuracy.
PubMed and EMBASE through December 2011; BIOSIS and Web of Science through March 2010; and citations of articles, guidelines, reviews, and manufacturers.
Studies that compared RIDTs with a reference standard of either reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (first choice) or viral culture.
Reviewers abstracted study data by using a standardized form and assessed quality by using Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies criteria.
159 studies evaluated 26 RIDTs, and 35% were conducted during the H1N1 pandemic. Failure to report whether results were assessed in a blinded manner and the basis for patient recruitment were important quality concerns. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 62.3% (95% CI, 57.9% to 66.6%) and 98.2% (CI, 97.5% to 98.7%), respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 34.5 (CI, 23.8 to 45.2) and 0.38 (CI, 0.34 to 0.43), respectively. Sensitivity estimates were highly heterogeneous, which was partially explained by lower sensitivity in adults (53.9% [CI, 47.9% to 59.8%]) than in children (66.6% [CI, 61.6% to 71.7%]) and a higher sensitivity for influenza A (64.6% [CI, 59.0% to 70.1%) than for influenza B (52.2% [CI, 45.0% to 59.3%).
Incomplete reporting limited the ability to assess the effect of important factors, such as specimen type and duration of influenza symptoms, on diagnostic accuracy.
Influenza can be ruled in but not ruled out through the use of RIDTs. Sensitivity varies across populations, but it is higher in children than in adults and for influenza A than for influenza B.
Canadian Institutes of Health Research.
PubMed ID
22371850 View in PubMed
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Acute kidney injury among critically ill patients with pandemic H1N1 influenza A in Canada: cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113108
Source
BMC Nephrol. 2013;14:123
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Sean M Bagshaw
Manish M Sood
Jennifer Long
Robert A Fowler
Neill K J Adhikari
Author Affiliation
Division of Critical Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, 3C1.12 Walter C Mackenzie Centre, 8440-112 St NW, Edmonton, AB T6G 2B7, Canada.
Source
BMC Nephrol. 2013;14:123
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Kidney Injury - diagnosis - epidemiology
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Critical Illness - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Influenza, Human - diagnosis - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Pandemics
Prospective Studies
Abstract
Canada's pandemic H1N1 influenza A (pH1N1) outbreak led to a high burden of critical illness. Our objective was to describe the incidence of AKI (acute kidney injury) in these patients and risk factors for AKI, renal replacement therapy (RRT), and mortality.
From a prospective cohort of critically ill adults with confirmed or probable pH1N1 (16 April 2009-12 April 2010), we abstracted data on demographics, co-morbidities, acute physiology, AKI (defined by RIFLE criteria for Injury or Failure), treatments in the intensive care unit, and clinical outcomes. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between clinical characteristics and the outcomes of AKI, RRT, and hospital mortality.
We included 562 patients with pH1N1-related critical illness (479 [85.2%] confirmed, 83 [14.8%] probable]: mean age 48.0 years, 53.4% female, and 13.3% aboriginal. Common co-morbidities included obesity, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. AKI occurred in 60.9%, with RIFLE categories of Injury (23.0%) and Failure (37.9%). Independent predictors of AKI included obesity (OR 2.94; 95%CI, 1.75-4.91), chronic kidney disease (OR 4.50; 95%CI, 1.46-13.82), APACHE II score (OR per 1-unit increase 1.06; 95%CI, 1.03-1.09), and P(a)O2/F(i)O2 ratio (OR per 10-unit increase 0.98; 95%CI, 0.95-1.00). Of patients with AKI, 24.9% (85/342) received RRT and 25.8% (85/329) died. Independent predictors of RRT were obesity (OR 2.25; 95% CI, 1.14-4.44), day 1 mechanical ventilation (OR 4.09; 95% CI, 1.21-13.84), APACHE II score (OR per 1-unit increase 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.12), and day 1 creatinine (OR per 10 µmol/L increase, 1.06; 95%CI, 1.03-1.10). Development of AKI was not independently associated with hospital mortality.
The incidence of AKI and RRT utilization were high among Canadian patients with critical illness due to pH1N1.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23763900 View in PubMed
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Acute kidney injury in critically ill patients infected with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1): report from a Canadian Province.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144768
Source
Am J Kidney Dis. 2010 May;55(5):848-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010
Author
Manish M Sood
Claudio Rigatto
Ryan Zarychanski
Paul Komenda
Amy R Sood
Joe Bueti
Martina Reslerova
Dan Roberts
Julie Mojica
Anand Kumar
Author Affiliation
St Boniface General Hospital, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
Source
Am J Kidney Dis. 2010 May;55(5):848-55
Date
May-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Kidney Injury - epidemiology - etiology - therapy - virology
Adult
Comorbidity
Critical Illness
Female
Humans
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Influenza, Human - complications - epidemiology
Length of Stay
Male
Manitoba
Middle Aged
Renal Dialysis - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) has led to a global increase in severe respiratory illness. Little is known about kidney outcomes and dialytic requirements in critically ill patients infected with pandemic H1N1.
Prospective observational study.
50 patients with pandemic H1N1 admitted to any of 7 intensive care units in Manitoba, Canada, were prospectively followed.
Outcomes were kidney injury and kidney failure defined using RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage disease) criteria or need for dialysis therapy.
The pandemic H1N1 group was composed of 50 critically ill patients with pandemic H1N1 with severe respiratory syndrome (47 confirmed cases, 3 probable). Kidney injury, kidney failure, and need for dialysis occurred in 66.7%, 66%, and 11% of patients, respectively. Mortality was 16%. Kidney failure was associated with increased death (OR, 11.29; 95% CI, 1.29-98.9), whereas the need for dialysis was associated with an increase in length of stay (RR, 2.38; 95% CI, 2.13-25.75).
Small population studied from single Canadian province; thus, limited generalizability.
In critically ill patients with pandemic H1N1, kidney injury, kidney failure, and the need for dialysis are common and associated with an increase in mortality and length of intensive care unit stay.
PubMed ID
20303633 View in PubMed
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487 records – page 1 of 49.