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Antimicrobial resistance in Haemophilus influenzae isolated from blood, cerebrospinal fluid, middle ear fluid and throat samples of children. A nationwide study in Finland in 1988-1990.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature216391
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1995;27(1):57-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
1995
Author
A. Nissinen
E. Herva
M L Katila
S. Kontiainen
O. Liimatainen
S. Oinonen
A K Takala
P. Huovinen
Author Affiliation
Antimicrobial Research Laboratory, National Public Health Institute, Turku, Finland.
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1995;27(1):57-61
Date
1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Ampicillin - pharmacology
Ampicillin Resistance - physiology
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Bacterial Capsules - analysis
Blood - microbiology
Case-Control Studies
Cerebrospinal Fluid - microbiology
Child, Preschool
Ear, Middle - microbiology
Finland - epidemiology
Haemophilus Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology
Haemophilus influenzae - classification - drug effects - isolation & purification
Humans
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Pharynx - microbiology
beta-Lactamases - biosynthesis
Abstract
A nation-wide survey of the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Haemophilus influenzae was conducted on isolates collected in 1988-90 from middle ear fluid (MEF), blood, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in infected children or throat samples of healthy children. Altogether 885 strains were examined regarding capsular type b, beta-lactamase production and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ampicillin, cefaclor, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for these strains was determined by the agar dilution method. 99% (578/585) of MEF isolates, 93% (112/121) of throat isolates, but only 6% (10/179) of blood/CSF isolates were not of type b (Hib). The rate of beta-lactamase production was 11.4% among Hib strains, 8.0% among non-type b MEF isolates, and 4.5% among non-type b throat isolates. No increase in the prevalence of beta-lactamase production in H. influenzae has taken place in Finland since the early 1980s. Resistance to ampicillin among strains that lacked beta-lactamase activity was rare (0.2%). Of the non-type b MEF and throat isolates, 5.9% and 2.7%, respectively, were resistant to trimethoprim and 3.6% and 2.7%, respectively, to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to other drugs was rare (
PubMed ID
7784815 View in PubMed
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Bacteriologic epidemiology of Hemophilus influenzae type b strains causing invasive infections in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature230369
Source
J Infect Dis. 1989 Aug;160(2):237-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1989
Author
A K Takala
L. van Alphen
J M Musser
L. Geelen
R K Selander
J. Eskola
P H Mäkelä
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
J Infect Dis. 1989 Aug;160(2):237-42
Date
Aug-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Finland
Haemophilus Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Haemophilus influenzae - analysis - classification - isolation & purification
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Lipopolysaccharides - analysis
Abstract
Consecutive Hemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) isolates (333 total) from children with invasive disease in Finland in 1985-1986 were analyzed. All belonged to the common genetic clusters described in the USA and Europe. However, detailed typing demonstrated some characteristics unique to Hib strains in Finland. Of the isolates, 86% belonged to one of four distinct patterns according to the combination of outer membrane protein subtype, biotype, and lipopolysaccharide serotype: 1-I-1 (25%), 1-II-9 (8%), and 1c-I-1 (18%). Pattern 1-II-9 has not been previously reported; it was most commonly found in the most densely populated area of Finland and among children cared for outside the home. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis revealed that 87% of isolates with the pattern 1c-I-1 belonged to the electrophoretic type 21.8, which is seldom recovered from patients with invasive Hib disease in other countries.
PubMed ID
2788195 View in PubMed
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Bacteriology of acute otitis media in a cohort of Finnish children followed for the first two years of life.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature193970
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001 Jul;20(7):654-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2001
Author
T. Kilpi
E. Herva
T. Kaijalainen
R. Syrjänen
A K Takala
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001 Jul;20(7):654-62
Date
Jul-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland
Haemophilus Infections - microbiology
Haemophilus influenzae - isolation & purification
Humans
Infant
Male
Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis - isolation & purification
Neisseriaceae Infections - microbiology
Otitis Media - drug therapy - microbiology - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Infections - microbiology
Pneumococcal Vaccines - therapeutic use
Recurrence
Serotyping
Streptococcus pneumoniae - isolation & purification
Suction - methods
Abstract
Timely information on the bacteriology of primary, noncomplicated acute otitis media (AOM) may today be needed more than ever, because of the increasing antimicrobial resistance of its major bacterial causes and because of the potential of new pneumococcal and other bacterial vaccines for prevention of AOM.
The study followed 329 children from 2 to 24 months of age at scheduled healthy visits and sick visits at the study clinic. Whenever AOM was diagnosed during the follow-up, myringotomy was performed and middle ear fluid was aspirated for bacterial culture.
At least one middle ear fluid sample was available from 772 AOM events; Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc) was isolated in 201 (26%), Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc) in 177 (23%) and Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) in 174 events (23%). The incidence of Pnc AOM peaked at 12 months of age, whereas the incidence of Mc AOM showed the first peak at 6 months and Hi AOM at 20 months. Pnc AOM showed less prominent seasonality in occurrence than Mc and Hi AOM. Hi was a rare cause of the first 2 AOM episodes (13%) but became increasingly common from the third episode on (32% on average).
Pnc, Mc and Hi were almost equally common findings in AOM. Pnc seems to be the most pathogenic of these three, the role of Mc is increasing and Hi is clearly associated with recurrent AOM.
PubMed ID
11465836 View in PubMed
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Changes in the distribution of Haemophilus influenzae type b clones associated with widespread infant vaccination in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature222678
Source
J Infect Dis. 1992 Dec;166(6):1340-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1992
Author
L. van Alphen
A K Takala
L. Geelen-van den Broek
J. Dankert
J. Eskola
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Source
J Infect Dis. 1992 Dec;166(6):1340-5
Date
Dec-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Bacterial Capsules
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Bacterial Vaccines
Child
Child, Preschool
Epiglottitis - epidemiology - microbiology - prevention & control
Finland - epidemiology
Haemophilus Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - prevention & control
Haemophilus Vaccines
Haemophilus influenzae - classification - isolation & purification
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Meningitis, Haemophilus - epidemiology - microbiology - prevention & control
Polysaccharides, Bacterial
Serotyping
Vaccination
Abstract
Isolates from 646 consecutive Finnish Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) patients with systemic disease, collected before and during large-scale vaccinations with Hib conjugate vaccines, were analyzed by major outer membrane protein (OMP) subtyping, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) serotyping, and biotyping (BT). Strains with OMP-BT-LPS combinations (clones) 1-I-1 and 1c-I-1 disappeared at the same rate as the disease they were associated with. A preferential decrease in the number of isolates of clone 1-II-1 was recorded, whereas the reduction in disease caused by strains of clone 1-II-9 occurred at a lower rate than expected. The latter clone occurred mainly in the most densely populated area of Finland. Strains belonging to all the common Hib clones were isolated from the 16 infants who acquired Hib disease despite being (partially) vaccinated. Thus, Hib clones disappeared during mass vaccination with conjugate vaccines, although at different rates.
PubMed ID
1431251 View in PubMed
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Disappearance of epiglottitis during large-scale vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type B conjugate vaccine among children in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature218031
Source
Laryngoscope. 1994 Jun;104(6 Pt 1):731-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1994
Author
A K Takala
H. Peltola
J. Eskola
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Helsinki University, Stenbäckinkatu, Finland.
Source
Laryngoscope. 1994 Jun;104(6 Pt 1):731-5
Date
Jun-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Bacterial Capsules
Child
Child, Preschool
Diphtheria Toxoid
Epiglottitis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Haemophilus Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Haemophilus Vaccines
Haemophilus influenzae
Humans
Male
Polysaccharides, Bacterial
Tetanus Toxoid
Vaccination
Abstract
Surveillance of blood-culture-proven epiglottitis was conducted in Finland from 1985 through 1992. Among children (
PubMed ID
8196448 View in PubMed
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Epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors for invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in a population with high vaccine efficacy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature230650
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1989 Jun;8(6):343-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1989
Author
A K Takala
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1989 Jun;8(6):343-6
Date
Jun-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacterial Vaccines - immunology
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Finland
Haemophilus Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Haemophilus influenzae - immunology
Humans
Infant
Male
Risk factors
Vaccination
PubMed ID
2787493 View in PubMed
Less detail

Epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease among children in Finland before vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature230896
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1989 May;8(5):297-302
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1989
Author
A K Takala
J. Eskola
H. Peltola
P H Mäkelä
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1989 May;8(5):297-302
Date
May-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Bacterial Vaccines - immunology
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Finland
Haemophilus Infections - epidemiology - immunology
Haemophilus influenzae - immunology
Humans
Infant
Male
Seasons
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
On the basis of intensified surveillance in Finland we report the epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease based on 333 consecutive culture-proved cases recorded during 1985 and 1986. The annual incidence rate among children younger than 5 years of age was 52/100,000; 46% of patients had meningitis, 29% had epiglottitis and 25% had other forms of invasive disease. The median age of patients was 27 months, with 45% younger than 2 years of age. Meningitis and epiglottitis were found more often among boys than among girls, whereas the opposite was found among patients with other types of invasive disease (P = 0.015). Among the latter 68% of children with pneumonia or septicemia were 2 years or older compared with 32% of patients with arthritis, cellulitis or pyelonephritis (P = 0.009). These background data are essential for correct interpretation and application of results from trials with H. influenzae type b conjugate vaccines that are currently ongoing in Finland.
PubMed ID
2657619 View in PubMed
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Finnish efficacy trials with Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature223707
Source
J Infect Dis. 1992 Jun;165 Suppl 1:S137-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1992
Author
J. Eskola
H. Peltola
H. Käyhty
A K Takala
P H Mäkelä
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
J Infect Dis. 1992 Jun;165 Suppl 1:S137-8
Date
Jun-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
Bacterial Proteins - immunology
Bacterial Vaccines - immunology
Diphtheria Toxoid - immunology
Finland
Haemophilus Infections - prevention & control
Haemophilus Vaccines
Haemophilus influenzae - immunology
Humans
Infant
Tetanus Toxoid - immunology
Vaccination
Vaccines, Synthetic - immunology
Abstract
The first Finnish trial with Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine was conducted during 1973-1974. It demonstrated that the polysaccharide vaccine was 90% efficacious in children greater than or equal to 18-24 months old. The immunologically superior polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines have been used since 1986 in randomized trials. The PRP-D vaccine (polysaccharide conjugated to diphtheria toxoid) was 90% efficacious when given at 3, 4, and 6 months of age to 58,000 infants. In 1988-1989, the PRP-D vaccine was compared with the HbOC vaccine (oligosaccharide conjugated to CRM197 protein). Follow-up is continuing, but both vaccines seem to be efficacious after two doses in infancy.
PubMed ID
1588148 View in PubMed
Less detail

Haemophilus influenzae type b and cross-reactive antigens in natural Hib infection dynamics; modelling in two populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature188719
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2002 Aug;129(1):73-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2002
Author
T. Leino
K. Auranen
P H Mäkelä
H. Käyhty
M. Ramsay
M. Slack
A K Takala
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2002 Aug;129(1):73-83
Date
Aug-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
Antigens, Bacterial - immunology
Bacterial Capsules
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross Reactions
Finland - epidemiology
Great Britain - epidemiology
Haemophilus Infections - epidemiology - immunology
Haemophilus Vaccines - immunology
Haemophilus influenzae type b - immunology
Humans
Immunity, Maternally-Acquired
Immunization
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Models, Statistical
Polysaccharides, Bacterial - immunology
Abstract
Natural immunity to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) invasive disease is based on antibodies arising in response to encounters with Hib or cross-reactive (CR) bacteria. The relative importance of Hib and CR contacts is unknown. We applied a statistical model to estimate the total rate of immunizing infections of Hib and CR prior to wide-scale vaccinations in Finland and the UK. The average rates of these contacts were 0.7 and 1.2 per year per child in Finland and the UK, respectively. Using a rough estimate of 0.1 Hib acquisitions per year per child in the UK based on carriage rates, the proportion of Hib among all immunizing contacts was in the order of 10%, suggesting that CR bacteria have a major role. In general, varying frequency of CR contacts may explain some differences in the pre-vaccination incidence and age-distribution of invasive disease in different countries.
PubMed ID
12211599 View in PubMed
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A hierarchical Bayesian model to predict the duration of immunity to Haemophilus influenzae type b.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194970
Source
Biometrics. 1999 Dec;55(4):1306-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1999
Author
K. Auranen
M. Eichner
H. Käyhty
A K Takala
E. Arjas
Author Affiliation
Rolf Nevanlinna Institute, University of Helsinki, Finland. kari.auranen@rni.helsinki.fi
Source
Biometrics. 1999 Dec;55(4):1306-13
Date
Dec-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
Bayes Theorem
Biometry
Child
Cohort Studies
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Finland
Haemophilus Infections - immunology - prevention & control
Haemophilus Vaccines - pharmacology
Haemophilus influenzae type b - immunology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Markov Chains
Models, Statistical
Monte Carlo Method
Regression Analysis
Abstract
A hierarchical Bayesian regression model is fitted to longitudinal data on Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) serum antibodies. To estimate the decline rate of the antibody concentration, the model accommodates the possibility of unobserved subclinical infections with Hib bacteria that cause increasing concentrations during the study period. The computations rely on Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation of the joint posterior distribution of the model parameters. The model is used to predict the duration of immunity to subclinical Hib infection and to a serious invasive Hib disease.
PubMed ID
11315089 View in PubMed
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17 records – page 1 of 2.