To substantiate the effectiveness of the set-up center in the early detection of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and in its organization and implementation of current therapeutic programs.
The therapeutic activity of the specialized medical care system set up in St. Petersburg for patients with IBD (ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD)), which is based on a multifunctional inflammatory bowel disease center at City Clinical Hospital Thirty-One, was analyzed.
The effective work of the center could reduce time for verification of the diagnosis of UC from 6.4 +/- 1.4 to 3.6 +/- 0.8 months and CD from 28.6 +/- 6.7 to 15.3 +/- 4.2 months, respectively; decline the annual number of patients with moderate and severe UC from 73.4 to 53.6 and CD from 66.7 to 47%, and also set up a centralized system for all required types of current therapeutic and diagnostic care for these patients.
The establishment of the St. Petersburg Center for the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases could develop and realize in practice a new closed-loop urban system for the early detection and notification of IBD patients, the organization and rendering of individual effective therapeutic-and-prophylactic care.
To determine the utility of the anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody (ASCA) ELISA test developed in Manitoba in 2001 in a population-wide sample referred from physicians across Manitoba in their investigation of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms.
Patients whose serum was referred for ASCA testing in 2001 and 2002 were eligible for the present study. ELISA was performed by a technologist, blind to patient diagnoses. A single investigator contacted physicians to facilitate chart review. Data collected included demographics, final diagnoses and tests used to substantiate the final diagnosis.
Of 482 subjects identified, 410 charts were available for review and 29 of those were unavailable for follow-up or had incomplete charts. The present study population included Crohn's disease (CD, n=114), ulcerative colitis (n=74), indeterminate colitis (n=31), celiac disease (n=9), irritable bowel syndrome (n=75), other diagnoses (n=33) and no disease (n=45). ASCA had a sensitivity of 37% (95% CI 27.8 to 46.8) and specificity of 97% (95% CI 93.8 to 98.6) for diagnosing CD and an odds ratio for a diagnosis of CD of 18.4 (95% CI 8.2 to 41.3). The 47 ASCA-positive patients included the following diagnoses: CD=39, ulcerative colitis=3, indeterminate colitis=1, celiac disease=3 and no disease=1. The likelihood of having an inflammatory disease if ASCA is positive was nearly 40-fold.
A positive ASCA test using this assay nearly clinches a diagnosis of some form of inflammatory intestinal disease, which is highly likely to be CD. In symptomatic patients, a positive ASCA test should encourage the clinician to pursue further investigations.
To determine whether a diagnosis of otitis media in the first 5 years of childhood is associated with the development of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
This was a nested case-control analysis of a population-based IBD database in Manitoba, Canada. A total of 294 children with IBD diagnosed between 1989 and 2008 were matched to 2377 controls, based on age, sex, and geographic region. The diagnosis of ottis media was based on physician claims. IBD status was determined based on a validated administrative database definition. Multivariate conditional logistic regression models were used to model the association between otitis media and IBD, adjusted for annual physician visits.
Approximately 5% of the IBD cases and 12% of the controls did not have an otitis media diagnosis before that IBD case date. By age 5 years, 89% of the IBD cases had at least one diagnosis of otitis media, compared with 82% of the controls. In multivariate analyses, compared with cases and controls without an otitis media diagnosis, individuals with an otitis media diagnosis by age 5 years were 2.8-fold more likely to be an IBD case (95% CI, 1.5-5.2; P = .001). This association was detected in stratified models examining Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis separately.
Compared with controls, subjects diagnosed with IBD were more likely to have had at least one early childhood episode of otitis media before their diagnosis. We suspect that otitis media serves as a proxy measure of antibiotic use.
The epidemiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) has been incompletely assessed by population-based studies. We therefore conducted a population-based study to determine: (a) incidence rates of large and small duct PSC in adults and children, (b) the risk of inflammatory bowel disease on developing PSC, and (c) patterns of clinical presentation with the advent of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP).
All residents of the Calgary Health Region diagnosed with PSC between 2000 and 2005 were identified by medical records, endoscopic, diagnostic imaging, and pathology databases. Demographic and clinical information were obtained. Incidence rates were determined and risks associated with PSC were reported as rate ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Forty-nine PSC patients were identified for an age- and gender-adjusted annual incidence rate of 0.92 cases per 100,000 person-years. The incidence of small duct PSC was 0.15/100,000. In children the incidence rate was 0.23/100,000 compared with 1.11/100,000 in adults. PSC risk was similar in Crohn's disease (CD; RR 220.0, 95% CI 132.4-343.7) and ulcerative colitis (UC; RR 212.4, 95% CI 116.1-356.5). Autoimmune hepatitis overlap was noted in 10% of cases. MRCP diagnosed large duct PSC in one-third of cases. Delay in diagnosis was common (median 8.4 months). A minority had complications at diagnosis: cholangitis (6.1%), pancreatitis (4.1%), and cirrhosis (4.1%).
Pediatric cases and small duct PSC are less common than adult large duct PSC. Surprisingly, the risk of developing PSC in UC and CD was similar. Autoimmune hepatitis overlap was noted in a significant minority of cases.
(1) The PillCam Colon capsule is an ingestible miniature camera that captures images of the colon's inner lining. (2) There is limited evidence on the use of this technology in imaging the colon. Two small, methodologically flawed pilot studies found that for patients with positive findings (i.e., abnormalities detected), the rates of detection with the PillCam Colon capsule were similar to those obtained with conventional colonoscopy. (3) No serious adverse events were reported in the pilot studies, although some patients had delayed excretion of the capsule. (4) A challenge for clinicians using this technology will be the time required to read the large quantity of video images produced. Further enhancements to the software system used to view the images may address this issue.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), microscopic colitis and celiac disease are all diseases with worldwide distribution and increased incidence has been reported from many areas. There is a shortage of studies investigating the occurrence of these diseases in the same individual and whether those affected demonstrate any particular phenotype. The aim of the study was to describe the concomitant incidence of microscopic colitis and celiac disease in a population-based IBD cohort.
All 790 individuals in a prospective population-based cohort included 2005-09 from Uppsala region, Sweden, were reviewed regarding the appearance of microscopic or celiac disease before or after IBD diagnosis.
Fifty percent (396/790) of the patients had been examined for the possibility of celiac disease. Seventeen patients with celiac disease were found, representing 2.2% of the cohort. Patients with celiac disease were younger compared to the non-celiac patients and those with colitis had more often an extensive inflammation of the colon. Seventy-one percent (12/17) were women. The majority of the patients were diagnosed with celiac disease before IBD. Five patients with IBD had an earlier diagnosis of microscopic colitis or developed it after the IBD diagnosis. One teenager developed collagenous sprue, misinterpreted as a severe relapse of ulcerative colitis (UC) resulting in colectomy.
The risk for celiac disease seems not to be increased in IBD, but those affected by both diseases seem to be predominantly women with extensive UC. There is a potential association between microscopic colitis and IBD.
OBJECTIVE: An exact diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and further subclassification may be difficult even after clinical, radiological and histological examinations. A correct subclassification is important for the success of both medical and surgical therapeutic strategies, but there is a dearth of information available on the frequency of changes in diagnosis in population-based studies. The objective of this work was prospectively to re-evaluate the diagnosis in an unselected cohort of IBD patients during the first five years after the initial diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients classified as IBD or possible IBD in the period 1990-94 (the IBSEN cohort) had their diagnosis re-evaluated after 1 and 5 years. Initially, the patients were classified as ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD), indeterminate colitis (IC) or possible IBD. At the 5-year visit, patients were classified as UC, CD or non-IBD. RESULTS: A total of 843 patients (518 UC, 221 CD, 40 IC and 64 possible IBD) were identified. Clinical information was available for 94% of the patients who survived after 5 years. A change in diagnosis was found in 9% of the patients initially classified as UC or CD. A change to non-IBD was more frequent than a change between UC and CD. A large proportion of patients initially classified as IC or possible IBD were diagnosed as non-IBD after 5 years (22.5% versus 50%). When IBD was confirmed in these groups, UC was more frequent than CD. Two changes in diagnosis during follow-up were observed in 2.8% of the patients; this was more frequent in patients initially classified as IC or possible IBD. CONCLUSIONS: There are obvious diagnostic problems in a minority of patients with IBD; a systematic follow-up is therefore important in these patients.
The incidence and prevalence of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children was established during 1984 and 1985 in a prospective study in Sweden. The patients with IBD were classified as having ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD), probable Crohn's disease (PCD), and indeterminate colitis (IC) according to defined histopathologic, endoscopic, and radiologic criteria. The study covered 1.51 million children less than 16 years of age (93% of all children in Sweden). The incidence of IBD was 5.0 and 4.5 and the prevalence was 17.6 and 18.2 per 100,000 children during the 2 years, respectively. The mean prevalence of UC was 7.5 per 100,000 and of CD + PCD was 6.2 per 100,000. The prevalence of IC was 4.2 per 100,000, which corresponds to 23% of the children with IBD.
To determine the degree and determinants of the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with the use of the Internet and to compare the results with those found by using a similar survey in patients attending gastroenterology clinics in Calgary, Alberta.
A cross-sectional survey of 263 patients with IBD with the use of a World Wide Web-based, structured questionnaire was conducted.
Complementary therapies had been used by 46% of patients in the previous two years. Current use was reported by 34%. Vitamins, herbal products and natural health practices were the most commonly reported therapies. Side effects and lack of effectiveness of standard therapies were the most commonly cited reasons for seeking complementary medicine. However, despite this, respondents who had previously received surgery, or intravenous or oral steroids were less likely to be current CAM users. Important differences between the determinants of and reasons for CAM use in the present study and those of a similar study of IBD patients in a local tertiary care setting were noted.
Complementary medicine use is common in patients with IBD. Differences in the determinants of and reasons for CAM use noted between the present Internet sample and a gastroenterology clinic sample suggest that conclusions from the present study and from previous studies based only on clinic samples provide a limited view of CAM use by people with IBD. More comprehensive assessments are needed.