Lower duodenal biopsies (LDB) are not taken at every oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD). In the present study, biopsies from the endoscopic normal lower duodenum were checked as a measure of quality assurance. From 1996 to 2000, 9,955 EGD were performed and 4,199 LDB were taken (42.2 %). Of these, 667 showed pathological histology (15.9 %). A non-specific inflammation was seen in 537 cases and lymphangiectasia in 30 cases. Signs of indigenous sprue were described histologically in 6 LDB. In 4 of the 6 first diagnoses, the LDB was taken owing to clinical suspicion of malabsorption syndrome. Giardia lamblia could be detected in 22 patients. Only 6 of the 22 patients had diarrhoea. A total of 18 clinically relevant first diagnoses were made by LDB in asymptomatic patients with normal endoscopic findings in the duodenum. In order to make a relevant first diagnosis, 233 LDB had to be taken. LDB can be dispensed within EGD when there is neither diarrhoea nor loss of weight, and no anemia, iron deficiency, vitamin deficiency, macrocytosis, hypoproteinaemia, meteorism, joint symptoms or fever.
A local case of dirofilariasis was first reported in a 70-year-old female in Magnitogorsk, Chelyabinsk Region, in November 2002. The primary diagnosis is atheroma of the skin of the forehead. A round mass having a smooth surface and slightly solid gray-whitish walls was surgically excised, which yielded a mobile rolled nematode measuring 7 cm in length and 0.8 mm in width. The parasitological diagnosis is an immature Dirofilaria repense female. It has been found that the female has neither dogs nor cats in her flat and she had not been left Mangitogorsk for approximately 18 years. A histological examination of the fibrotic capsule around the parasite revealed inflammation in the inner layer of the capsule, which was regarded as proliferative and having no signs of a granulomatous process. Fragments of cuticles of a round helminth having a well-defined alimentary tube was found. To encode the case, the authors have used Category B74.8 "Other types of filarisis (dirofilariasis)" of the first class, ICD-10.
Randomly selected parturients with term singleton pregnancies from two different settings, 83 from Mozambique and 90 from Sweden, entered the study. All of them underwent elective cesarean section, which enabled sterile harvesting of amniotic fluid (AF). AF samples were then tested for antibacterial activity (ABA). Background data and nutritional status were compared. Average age was 32.7 and 30.7 years (n.s.), average parity 6.6 and 1.6 (p
Viral respiratory infections cause acute airway abnormalities consisting of inflammation and physiological dysfunction in both animals and humans. It is likely that inflammatory cell products, such as cytokines, contribute substantially to viral-induced airway dysfunction. We hypothesized that imiquimod, an immune response enhancing agent that induces interferon-alpha, would attenuate the development of airway dysfunction during acute viral illness in rats. Adult Brown Norway rats were inoculated with parainfluenza type 1 (Sendai) virus or sterile vehicle, and treated with either imiquimod or water. Respiratory system resistance (Rrs), arterial oxygen tension (Pa,O2), lung viral titres and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) leucocyte counts were measured in anaesthetized, paralysed, ventilated rats. Virus-infected, water-treated rats had a significant decrease in Pa,O2 and had significant increases in leucocyte count and Rrs when compared to both the virus-infected, imiquimod-treated, (Pa,O2, p = 0.03; leucocyte count, p = 0.02; and Rrs, p = 0.009) and noninfected, water-treated rats (Pa,O2, p = 0.007; leucocyte count, p = 0.001; and Rrs, p = 0.01). In addition, imiquimod suppressed BAL eosinophils in both virus-infected (p = 0.02) and noninfected (p = 0.001) groups, and lowered overall virus titres (p = 0.03). Thus, both virus-induced airway inflammation and physiological dysfunction were attenuated significantly by imiquimod treatment in this animal model. By further delineating mechanisms by which infections induce airway dysfunction in animal models, more specific pharmacological interventions can be developed for the treatment of virus-induced asthma.
Acute encephalitis is a relatively uncommon but potentially harmful CNS inflammation usually caused by infection. The diagnosis is difficult to establish and the etiology often remains unclear. Furthermore, the long-term prognosis of acute encephalitis in children is poorly described. In this study, we characterize childhood encephalitis from a Swedish perspective in regard to etiology, clinical presentation and sequele. We retrospectively studied all children (n=93) who were admitted for acute encephalitis at Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm during 2000-2004. A confirmed etiological agent was identified in eight cases and a probable one in 37; in 48 cases no etiological agent could be found. Tick-borne encephalitis virus, enterovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, varicella zoster virus and influenza virus predominated and represented 67% of all the confirmed or probable etiologies. Encephalopathy was present in 80% of the children, 81% had fever, 44% had focal neurological findings, and seizures occurred in 40%. EEG abnormalities were seen in 90% and abnormal neuroimaging was present in 30%. The cerebrospinal fluid showed pleocytosis in 55%. There was no mortality, but 60% of the children had persisting symptoms at the time of discharge, 41% of which were moderate to severe. We conclude that the etiology of encephalitis among Swedish children is at large the same as in other European countries with similar vaccination programs. Fever and encephalopathy were seen in a majority of children and the most sensitive tool for making the diagnosis was EEG examination. Furthermore, many children display persisting sequele at discharge for which the strongest predictive factor was focal neurological findings at presentation.
We investigated the potential role of intercellular-adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in allergen-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and inflammation in sensitised Brown-Norway rats. Rats were sensitised with ovalbumin (OA) intraperitoneally and 21 days later they were either exposed to 0.9% NaCl or 1% OA aerosol for 15 min. Rats exposed to OA aerosol were pretreated either with ICAM-1 antibody (3 mg/kg i.p. and i.v., 45 min prior to OA exposure) or with the diluent for the antibody. Eighteen to twenty-four hours after OA or 0.9% NaCl exposure, rats were anaesthetised, tracheostomised and mechanically ventilated, and airway responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh) aerosol was measured as the provocative concentration of ACh needed to increase pulmorary resistance by 100% (PC100). Mean -log PC100 was increased in rats exposed to OA but pretreated with diluent (2.75 +/- 0.06) compared to rats treated with ICAM-1 antibody (2.51 +/- 0.08;
Course of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Detected Inflammation and Structural Lesions in the Sacroiliac Joints of Patients in the Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Danish Multicenter Study of Adalimumab in Spondyloarthritis, as Assessed by the Berlin and Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada Methods.
To investigate changes in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-assessed inflammation and structural lesions in the sacroiliac (SI) joints during treatment with adalimumab versus placebo.
In a 48-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 52 patients with spondyloarthritis were randomized to receive subcutaneous injections of either adalimumab 40 mg (n?=?25) or placebo (n?=?27) every other week for 12 weeks. Patients in the adalimumab group continued to receive and patients in the placebo group were switched to adalimumab 40 mg every other week for an additional 12 weeks. MRI of the SI joints was performed at weeks 0, 12, 24, and 48, and the images were assessed independently in a blinded manner using the modified Berlin and the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) MRI scores for inflammation and structural lesions of the SI joints.
At baseline, 56% of the adalimumab group and ~72% of the placebo group had an MRI-assessed inflammation score of =1. Among the patients with inflammation at baseline, the mean percent reductions in MRI scores for inflammation from week 0 to 12 were greater in the adalimumab group compared with the placebo group (Berlin method, -62% versus -5%; SPARCC method, -58% versus -12% [both P
Etiology of croupous pneumonia remaining a challenging problem has a long history of investigations. The term croupous pneumonia is traditionally used in this country to describe the form of the disease characterized by hyperergic inflammation and specific clinical/laboratory parameters. A valuable contribution to the study of this condition was made by S.P. Botkin. This paper deals with evolution of the views of epidemiology, etiology, pathomorphology, and methods of therapy of croupous pneumonia since Botkin's time to these days.
In 68 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) changes were analysed in the osseous tissue structural-and-functional state depending on the activity of the inflammatory process. Ascertained in RA patients were regularities in the course of rarefication processes, rate of the bone mass loss relative to stages of RA activity. With the aid of the ultrasound densitometry and echoosteometry techniques systemic disorders were studied together with structural-and-functional changes in the bone tissue.
We have investigated the effect of 2(4-((2-carboxymethyl)phenyl)ethylamino)-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680), a potent and selective agonist at adenosine A2A receptors, on pulmonary inflammation induced by allergen challenge in the ovalbumin-sensitised, Brown Norway rat. Aerosol administration of ovalbumin (5 mg x ml(-1) for 60 min; calculated dose 0.4 mg x kg(-1)) induced increases in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid leukocyte numbers, protein content and myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase activities measured 24 h post challenge. CGS 21680 (10 and 100 microg x kg(-1) given intratracheally (i.t.) 30 min before and 3 h after allergen challenge) inhibited dose-dependently all the parameters of inflammation. Qualitatively similar results were obtained with the glucocorticosteroid, budesonide (0.1, 1 and 10 mg x kg(-1) given 3 h prior to ovalbumin challenge). CGS 21680 given i.t. reduced blood pressure in anaesthetised rats at similar doses to those at which anti-inflammatory effects were manifested. Both the anti-inflammatory and hypotensive responses to CGS 21680 were blocked by pretreatment with the selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, 4-(2-(7-amino-2-(2-furyl)(1,2,4)triazolo(2,3-a(1,3,5)triazin-5-yl amino)ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385), 3 mg x kg(-1) p.o., 1 h prior to the agonist. Thus, CGS 21680 manifests broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory activity in a model of allergic asthma in the Brown Norway rat through activation of adenosine A2A receptors. The striking similarity to budesonide, a clinically used anti-inflammatory agent, suggests that adenosine A2A receptor agonists may be useful alternatives to glucocorticosteroids in the treatment of asthma.