To review the risk of in utero infection through amniocentesis in women with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.
Review articles, meta-analyses, and MEDLINE searches from 1966 to 2002 for English-language articles related to amniocentesis, fetal and neonatal infection, and hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or HIV.
The evidence collected was reviewed by the Genetics Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) and quantified using the Evaluation of Evidence guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Exam.
1. The risk of fetal hepatitis B infection through amniocentesis is low. However, knowledge of the maternal hepatitis B e antigen status is valuable in the counselling of risks associated with amniocentesis. (II-1C) 2. Amniocentesis in women infected with hepatitis C does not appear to significantly increase the risk of vertical transmission, but women should be counselled that very few studies have properly addressed this possibility. (II-2C) 3. In HIV-positive women all noninvasive screening tools should be used prior to considering amniocentesis. (II-2D) 4. For women infected with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or HIV, the addition of noninvasive methods of prenatal risk screening, such as nuchal translucency, triple screening, and anatomic ultrasound, may help in reducing the age-related risk to a level below the threshold for genetic amniocentesis. (II-2C) 5. For those women infected with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or HIV who insist on amniocentesis, every effort should be made to avoid inserting the needle through the placenta. (II-1B) VALIDATION: These guidelines have been approved by the SOGC Genetics Committee, SOGC Executive, and SOGC Council.
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada.
BACKGROUND: Transmission of group B Steptococci from mother to child during delivery may cause serious disease in some children, but this can be prevented by use of antibiotic treatment during delivery. We have estimated how antibiotic treatment of all pregnant carriers of group B streptococcus during delivery would affect the total antibiotic use in Norway. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We estimated the use of penicillin G for treatment of 10 %, 20 % and 30 % of streptococcus carriers among those delivering. The Medical Birth Registry was used to obtain number of births and the Norwegian Drug Wholesalers Database to obtain total use of the various substances. RESULTS: If 30 % of delivering women were carriers of group B streptococcus and treated with penicillin G, the treatment would equal 2.8 % of today's total use of penicillin G and 0.09 % of the total use of the whole group of beta-lactam antibacterial agents, penicillins. INTERPRETATION: Prophylactic antibiotic treatment of pregnant carriers of group B streptococcus during delivery would not lead to a substantial change in the current antibiotic use. The possibility of increasing antibiotic resistance should not be a main argument against using antibiotics in prevention of group B streptococcus infection in newborns.
Departments of Microbiology and Infectious Disease, Pediatrics, and Community Health Sciences and Child Health Research Unit, Alberta Children's Hospital, University of Calgary, Calgary,T2T-5C7, Canada. email@example.com
In a cohort study of 1207 pregnant women in Alberta, Canada, the serotype distributions of vaginal-rectal group B Streptococcus (GBS) isolates were compared with all isolates from neonates with invasive GBS disease identified by population-based surveillance. Serum concentrations of Ia, Ib, II, III, and V capsular polysaccharide (CPS)-specific IgG also were determined, according to serotype of the vaginal-rectal colonizing GBS strain. GBS colonization was detected in 19.5% (235 of 1207) of women. Serotype III accounted for 20.6% (48 of 233) of colonizing strains available for typing but for 37% (27 of 73) of invasive isolates from neonates (P
We evaluated the influence of type and timing of prophylaxis on perinatal HIV transmission in St. Petersburg, Russia.
We linked surveillance data for 1498 HIV-infected mothers delivering from 2004 to 2007 with polymerase chain reaction data for 1159 infants to determine predictors of transmission.
The overall perinatal transmission rate was 6.3% [73 of 1159, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.9% to 7.7%]. Among the 12.8% (n = 149) of mother-infant pairs receiving full course (antenatal, intrapartum, postnatal) dual/triple antiretroviral prophylaxis, the transmission rate was 2.7%. Among the 1010 receiving less complete regimens (full course zidovudine, single-dose nevirapine, or incomplete), transmission ranged from 4.1% to 12.2%. Among the 28.9% (330) of mothers initiating antiretroviral drugs or=29 weeks (or not at all) had increased transmission odds (adjusted odds ratio: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.8 to 12.9; odds ratio: 5.1, 95% CI: 2.0 to 13.1, respectively).
In St. Petersburg, the potential for further reductions in perinatal transmission is evident, given low transmission among women receiving early combination prophylaxis.
One of my pregnant patients tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Will HIV therapy put her pregnancy outcome at risk?
The biggest risk is vertical transmission of HIV to her baby. She should be treated with combination therapy; triple therapy is required to reduce vertical transmission. Zidovudine is not teratogenic in humans, but information on other antiretroviral drugs is incomplete.
To describe the decision support needs of immigrant and refugee women from HIV endemic countries regarding decision-making about voluntary counseling and testing for HIV (VCT) in Canada; and the needs of practitioners who support these women in making this decision, in a culturally appropriate manner.
Adapted, semi-structured questionnaires, based on the Ottawa Decision Support Framework (ODSF), were used to interview practitioners and patients. Practitioners from diverse backgrounds were purposefully selected from centers providing VCT in Ottawa. Adult, English-speaking immigrant and refugee women from HIV endemic countries were recruited from a clinic specializing in immigrant health services. Responses were tabulated using descriptive statistics, and emerging themes coded to identify unique factors affecting decision-making.
Analysis revealed differences between practitioner and patient perceptions of the decision-making needs of women from HIV endemic countries regarding VCT. Practitioners identified women's lack of knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention as a primary need, while patients identified inadequate awareness of HIV screening and treatment services, and their benefits and harms. Patients also perceived that women would not be aware of the various VCT options, while few practitioners highlighted this concern. Both groups held similar viewpoints about counseling strategies that could improve decision-making.
Women were unaware of the options available to them for VCT. Both practitioners and patients highlighted the issue of stigma and negative outcomes associated with testing that created barriers or contributed to delays in women receiving testing. Women preferred anonymous testing, and recommended that information and decision support regarding HIV testing be provided via non-targeted strategies, and integrated within general health services or public education.
Decision support in the context of VCT can improve decision quality, empowering patients to make informed decisions based on personal values. Study findings can inform the development of clinical guidelines for the routine offering of VCT.
We studied predictors of no prenatal care (PNC) and influence of no PNC on pregnancy outcome in a multisite study of 1071 women with syphilis in Russia. We assessed PNC utilization, HIV testing, syphilis treatment, and pregnancy outcome. We found that 37% of women with syphilis received no PNC, and 1% was HIV infected. Lacking official residency status was independently related to no PNC (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 8.1; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 5.3-12.3). Among women with inadequately treated current syphilis, those without PNC were more likely to have a stillborn infant than those with PNC (25% vs. 3%, odds ratio [OR] 9.5, 95% CI 4.0-23.5). Women with adequately treated current syphilis and no PNC were more likely to deliver a low birth weight (OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.8-8.1) or preterm infant (OR 3.9; 95%CI 1.8-8.7). Women with previous or current syphilis and no PNC were significantly more likely to abandon their infants.
Recent studies show divergent results concerning the risk of ectopic pregnancy following Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection.
Our goal was to investigate future reproductive health outcomes (births and ectopic pregnancies) among women tested for CT.
Our cohort consisted of 20,762 women born during 1970-1984 who were tested for CT during 1990-2003. We linked CT data to data on ectopic pregnancies and births during 1990-2004. Cox regression with time-dependent covariates was used to assess the association between CT history and births/ectopic pregnancies adjusted for age at first test. Analyses with ectopic pregnancy as outcome were also adjusted for parity.
We observed 9.6 births per 100 person-years of observation among women with negative tests only and 10.2 per 100 person-years among women with at least 1 positive test (hazard ratio adjusted for age at first test, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.12). Ectopic pregnancy incidence rates were higher for women with positive test(s) compared with women with negative test only (0.24 vs. 0.13 per 100 person-years; hazard ratio adjusted for age at first test and parity, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.27-2.60). Among women with at least 1 registered pregnancy, the adjusted hazard ratio was 2.03; 95% CI, 1.28-3.22).
Although women diagnosed with CT were at higher risk for ectopic pregnancy than women with negative test results only, our study suggest that their fertility prospects were better than they would have been had CT screening not been implemented in this population. Opportunistic CT screening is an appropriate method for maintaining female reproductive health.