A questionnaire study was carried out of all orthopedic surgical procedures in the operating rooms of a teaching hospital over an 8-week period to describe the frequency and circumstances of accidental blood contact. Blood exposure occurred in 11% of the procedures. Contamination of intact skin was the most common incident (79%); percutaneous injury occurred in 13%. The majority of the incidents were believed to be preventable.
The microbiological tests of 769 blood samples from 220 patients, treated in 4 intensive care units of the N.V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute for Emergency Medical Service within a period from January 2009 to June 2010, were analysed. Etiologically significant microorganisms were detected in 323 samples (42%). 253 isolates were used in the analysis. Grampositive and gramnegative pathogens were detected in 47 and 42% of the cases respectively. Candida and anaerobic organisms were isolated in 8 and 3% of the cases respectively. Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci were isolated in 24 and 15% of the cases respectively. Nonfermenting gramnegative bacteria and enterobacteria were revealed in 25 and 17% of the cases respectively. Differences in the spectrum of the sepsis pathogens depending on the patients contingent were shown. The maximum summary susceptibility of the grampositive cocci was observed with respect to vancomycin and linezolid and that of the gramnegative bacteria was stated with respect to imipenem and meropenem.
APIC/CHICA-Canada Infection Control and Epidemiology: Professional and Practice Standards. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc, and the Community and Hospital Infection Control Association-Canada.
Health care workers compliance with guidelines, universal precautions, in connection with tasks that could involve contact with patient's blood is unsatisfactory. In a previous paper, we identified different forces that undermine compliance. Socialization into infection control, routinization, stereotyping, perceptions of patients' wishes and the presence of competing values and norms are examples of such forces.
The aim of this article is to describe and analyse different forces that promote adherence to universal precautions. Behavioural variations are seen as a consequence of differences between wards with regard to the safety culture. Safety culture is conceptualized as the outcome of a constant interplay between deactivating and reactivating forces. In this article the focus is on the latter.
The grounded theory approach. Data were collected through interviews with nurses and assistant nurses.
The charge nurse, informal leaders, students, infection control nurses, type of work, availability of equipment, blood-exposure incidents and media-coverage of infectious diseases are described as potentially important for compliance. The properties these agents must possess in order to be influential are also described.
The outcome of an occupationally acquired infection can be fatal. Hence it is important that health care workers take protective measures. The results imply that mere information about safe practices alone is insufficient to achieve that goal. All factors of importance for compliance must be taken in to consideration in clinical work and in education.