The situation of hospital hygiene in Scandinavian countries, especially Finland, is described. The infection control activities are most often also quality assurance and management, although the infection control staff does not always realize it. The features of infection control in all Scandinavian countries are similar, but they differ in details. Most hospitals have Infection Control Committees with an advisory and expert role in infection control, but normally with no executive power. All Scandinavian countries have a network of skillful Infection Control Nurses working together with the Infection Control Officer of the hospital. The Scandinavian countries have advanced guidelines for various procedures and other activities that need infection control alertness. The voluntary infection control societies have a major role in the development of infection control activities and education. The development of suitable process and outcome quality indicators are a demanding task for the future.