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286 records – page 1 of 29.

The adenosine triphosphate method as a quality control tool to assess 'cleanliness' of frequently touched hospital surfaces.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273379
Source
J Hosp Infect. 2015 Oct;91(2):166-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2015
Author
L. Knape
A. Hambraeus
B. Lytsy
Source
J Hosp Infect. 2015 Oct;91(2):166-70
Date
Oct-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenosine Triphosphate - analysis
Environmental Microbiology
Hospitals
Housekeeping, Hospital - methods - standards
Humans
Infection control - methods - standards
Microbiological Techniques - methods
Prospective Studies
Quality Control
Sweden
Abstract
The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) method is widely accepted as a quality control method to complement visual assessment, in the specifications of requirements, when purchasing cleaning contractors in Swedish hospitals.
To examine whether the amount of biological load, as measured by ATP on frequently touched near-patient surfaces, had been reduced after an intervention; to evaluate the correlation between visual assessment and ATP levels on the same surfaces; to identify aspects of the performance of the ATP method as a tool in evaluating hospital cleanliness.
A prospective intervention study in three phases was carried out in a medical ward and an intensive care unit (ICU) at a regional hospital in mid-Sweden between 2012 and 2013. Existing cleaning procedures were defined and baseline tests were sampled by visual inspection and ATP measurements of ten frequently touched surfaces in patients' rooms before and after intervention. The intervention consisted of educating nursing staff about the importance of hospital cleaning and direct feedback of ATP levels before and after cleaning.
The mixed model showed a significant decrease in ATP levels after the intervention (P
PubMed ID
26213368 View in PubMed
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Adverse effects of amantadine and oseltamivir used during respiratory outbreaks in a center for developmentally disabled adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature177196
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2004 Nov;25(11):955-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2004
Author
Allison J McGeer
Wayne Lee
Mark Loeb
Andrew E Simor
Margaret McArthur
Karen Green
Jonathan Hayfron Benjamin
Charles Gardner
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2004 Nov;25(11):955-61
Date
Nov-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetamides - adverse effects
Adult
Aged
Amantadine - adverse effects
Antiviral Agents - adverse effects
Child
Comorbidity
Developmental Disabilities - epidemiology
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Female
Gastrointestinal Diseases - chemically induced
Humans
Incidence
Infection Control - methods - statistics & numerical data
Long-Term Care - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Nervous System Diseases - chemically induced
Ontario - epidemiology
Oseltamivir
Respiratory Tract Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
Antiviral prophylaxis is recommended for the control of institutional influenza A outbreaks. In long-term-care institutions other than nursing homes, neither the seriousness of influenza nor the risks and benefits of antiviral prophylaxis is clearly understood. We studied the severity of illness due to influenza among adults residing in a center for the developmentally disabled and assessed adverse reactions to amantadine and oseltamivir prophylaxis.
Data were collected from the charts of consenting residents. Complications of upper respiratory tract illness were recorded. Potential adverse events were documented during amantadine and oseltamivir therapy, and during a baseline period with neither medication.
The median age of the 287 participants was 46.4 years. Only 15 (5%) were older than 65 years, and 69 (24%) had chronic underlying medical illness placing them at high risk for influenza. Of the 122 residents with an upper respiratory tract infection, 16 (13%) developed pneumonia, 12 (9.8%) were hospitalized, and 5 (4%) died. Twenty-eight (25%) of 112 residents had an adverse neurologic event while receiving amantadine prophylaxis, compared with 3 (2.7%) receiving no antiviral medication and 5 (4.5%) receiving oseltamivir (P
PubMed ID
15566030 View in PubMed
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Agent-based modeling of the spread of influenza-like illness in an emergency department: a simulation study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132467
Source
IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed. 2011 Nov;15(6):877-89
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2011
Author
Marek Laskowski
Bryan C P Demianyk
Julia Witt
Shamir N Mukhi
Marcia R Friesen
Robert D McLeod
Author Affiliation
Internet Innovation Centre, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. mareklaskowski@gmail.com
Source
IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed. 2011 Nov;15(6):877-89
Date
Nov-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Communicable Diseases - epidemiology - transmission
Computer simulation
Cross Infection - transmission
Decision Support Techniques
Emergency Service, Hospital - organization & administration
Humans
Infection Control - methods
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - transmission
Least-Squares Analysis
Models, organizational
Models, Statistical
Abstract
The objective of this paper was to develop an agent-based modeling framework in order to simulate the spread of influenza virus infection on a layout based on a representative hospital emergency department in Winnipeg, Canada. In doing so, the study complements mathematical modeling techniques for disease spread, as well as modeling applications focused on the spread of antibiotic-resistant nosocomial infections in hospitals. Twenty different emergency department scenarios were simulated, with further simulation of four infection control strategies. The agent-based modeling approach represents systems modeling, in which the emergency department was modeled as a collection of agents (patients and healthcare workers) and their individual characteristics, behaviors, and interactions. The framework was coded in C++ using Qt4 libraries running under the Linux operating system. A simple ordinary least squares (OLS) regression was used to analyze the data, in which the percentage of patients that became infected in one day within the simulation was the dependent variable. The results suggest that within the given instance context, patient-oriented infection control policies (alternate treatment streams, masking symptomatic patients) tend to have a larger effect than policies that target healthcare workers. The agent-based modeling framework is a flexible tool that can be made to reflect any given environment; it is also a decision support tool for practitioners and policymakers to assess the relative impact of infection control strategies. The framework illuminates scenarios worthy of further investigation, as well as counterintuitive findings.
PubMed ID
21813364 View in PubMed
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Alcohol-based hand disinfection: a more robust hand-hygiene method in an intensive care unit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9296
Source
J Hosp Infect. 2005 Mar;59(3):229-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2005
Author
C. Tvedt
G. Bukholm
Author Affiliation
Institute of Clinical Epidemiology and Molecular Biology, Akershus University Hospital, 1474 Nordbyhagen, Norway. chtv@ahus.no
Source
J Hosp Infect. 2005 Mar;59(3):229-34
Date
Mar-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohols - administration & dosage - standards
Comparative Study
Cross Infection - microbiology - prevention & control
Guideline Adherence
Handwashing - methods - standards
Hospitals, University
Humans
Infection Control - methods
Intensive Care Units - standards
Norway
Personnel, Hospital
Practice Guidelines
Soaps - administration & dosage - standards
Surface-Active Agents - administration & dosage - standards
Abstract
This study involved observation of hand-hygiene behaviour and evaluation of the effect of alcohol-based hand disinfection and handwashing with plain liquid soap on microbial flora. The study was performed in a combined medical and surgical intensive care unit. We demonstrated a crude compliance of hand hygiene of 50.4%, which was only performed adequately in 20.8% of cases. Of this group, handwashing and hand-disinfection procedures were performed properly 34.0% and 71.6% of the time, respectively. Hand samples for bacteriological examinations with the glove juice method demonstrated that whilst handwashing was sensitive to the way in which hand hygiene was performed, alcohol-based hand disinfection was less sensitive to such performance. Our study demonstrated that alcohol-based hand disinfection is a robust hand-hygiene method with many advantages in a practical setting. It is very feasible for use in hospital wards.
PubMed ID
15694980 View in PubMed
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[Aminoglycoside resistance in gramnegative pathogens of nosocomial infections in Russia].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature177139
Source
Antibiot Khimioter. 2004;49(5):11-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
G K Reshed'ko
Source
Antibiot Khimioter. 2004;49(5):11-23
Date
2004
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetyltransferases - metabolism
Aminoglycosides - pharmacology
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Cross Infection - microbiology - prevention & control
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Gentamicins - pharmacology
Gram-Negative Bacteria - drug effects - enzymology
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections - prevention & control
Humans
Infection Control - methods
Nucleotidyltransferases - metabolism
Phosphotransferases - metabolism
Russia
Substrate Specificity
Abstract
The study of the mechanisms of aminoglycoside resistance in gramnegative pathogens of nosocomial infections in 14 hospitals of Russia showed that the basic mechanism was production of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes, mainly adenylyl transferase ANT(2"), acetyl transferases AAC(3)-V and ACC(6)-I, and phosphotransferases APH(3')-I and APH(3')-VI. In all the hospitals enzymes modifying gentamicin and tobramycin were wide spread while the resistance phenotypes to aminoglycosides were different in separate hospitals. Isepamycin proved to be the most active aminoglycoside. Recommendations for the use of antibiotics in hospital formulas and empiric therapy should be developed on the basis of the local specific features of the resistance in nosocomial pathogens to aminoglycosides.
PubMed ID
15573898 View in PubMed
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An epidemiologic study of nosocomial infections in a pediatric long-term care facility.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature220603
Source
Am J Infect Control. 1993 Aug;21(4):183-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1993
Author
J H Vermaat
E. Rosebrugh
E L Ford-Jones
J. Ciano
J. Kobayashi
G. Miller
Author Affiliation
Bloorview Children's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Am J Infect Control. 1993 Aug;21(4):183-8
Date
Aug-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Bacterial Infections - classification - complications - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Cross Infection - classification - complications - epidemiology
Hospitals, Chronic Disease - statistics & numerical data
Hospitals, Pediatric - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Infection Control - methods
Ontario - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Abstract
To determine the incidence of hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infection in pediatric long-term care facilities.
Prospective cohort.
An 87-bed pediatric long-term care facility.
All patients receiving long-term care at Bloorview Children's Hospital during the study period.
Infection developed in 40.1% of patients (n = 456). The nosocomial infection rate per 1000 patient days (mean, 7.84) varied substantially, from 1.66 in May 1988 to 16.37 day in April, 1989. The proportional frequencies of infections were as follows: respiratory, 41.6% (37.0% upper, 4.6% lower); urinary tract, 31.0%; skin, 15.6% (gastric tube site 5.0%, other 10.6%), eyes, 6.4%; gastrointestinal, 3.5%; and other, 1.5%. Of those infections for which an organism was recovered (48.5%), pathogens included Escherichia coli (22.5%), Enterococcus (14.8%), Staphylococcus (14.8%), Streptococcus (11.2%), Klebsiella (10.5%), Pseudomonas (10.1%), Proteus (4.3%), yeast (4.3%), Salmonella (0.7%), Clostridium difficile (0.4%), and other (6.2%).
The incidence and nature of infections in pediatric long-term care facilities differs from those in acute care facilities. Physicians should become familiar with the infection rates in the populations whom they treat. Control requires compliance with currently recognized effective strategies as well as innovative practical approaches to respiratory disease. Behavioral problems related to frequent clean, intermittent catheterization in young adults need to be addressed.
PubMed ID
8239048 View in PubMed
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An open randomized controlled trial of infection prevention in child day-care centers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33189
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1999 Aug;18(8):672-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1999
Author
M. Uhari
M. Möttönen
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, University of Oulu, Finland. matti.uhari@oulu.fi
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1999 Aug;18(8):672-7
Date
Aug-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Child Day Care Centers
Child, Preschool
Data Collection
Female
Humans
Infection - epidemiology
Infection Control - methods
Male
Program Evaluation
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Child care outside the home increases children's infections substantially. We have to evaluate the possibilities for reducing the transmission of infections by an infection prevention program. DESIGN AND METHODS: A 15-month randomized controlled trial involving 20 day-care centers was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an infection prevention program. The program was introduced in 10 centers and the other matched 10 centers served as controls. Records were made of the occurrence of infections and absences from care or work because of infections among the children, their parents and the personnel of the day-care centers. RESULTS: Both the children and the personnel in the program centers had significantly fewer infections than those in the control centers, the reduction being 9% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 4 to 16%, P
PubMed ID
10462334 View in PubMed
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An outbreak due to multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a burn unit: risk factors for acquisition and management.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190091
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002 May;23(5):261-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2002
Author
Andrew E Simor
Mark Lee
Mary Vearncombe
Linda Jones-Paul
Clare Barry
Manuel Gomez
Joel S Fish
Robert C Cartotto
Robert Palmer
Marie Louie
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, North York, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002 May;23(5):261-7
Date
May-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acinetobacter Infections - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Acinetobacter baumannii
Blood Component Transfusion - adverse effects
Burn Units
Burns - complications
Case-Control Studies
Cross Infection - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
Environmental Monitoring - standards
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Hand Disinfection - standards
Hospitals, Teaching
Housekeeping, Hospital - standards
Humans
Hydrotherapy - adverse effects
Infection Control - methods
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Ontario - epidemiology
Risk factors
Abstract
To describe the investigation and management of an outbreak due to multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii and to determine risk factors for acquisition of the organism.
A 14-bed regional burn unit in a Canadian tertiary-care teaching hospital.
Case-control study with multivariate analysis of potential risk factors using logistic regression analysis. Surveillance cultures were obtained from the hospital environment, from noninfected patients, and from healthcare providers.
A total of 31 (13%) of 247 patients with acute burn injuries acquired multiresistant A. baumannii between December 1998 and March 2000; 18 (58%) of the patients were infected. The organism was recovered from the hospital environment and the hands of healthcare providers. Significant risk factors for acquisition of multiresistant A. baumannii were receipt of blood products (odds ratio [OR], 10.8; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 3.4 to 34.4; P
PubMed ID
12026151 View in PubMed
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286 records – page 1 of 29.