Associations between the sense of humor and survival in relation to specific diseases has so far never been studied.
We conducted a 15-year follow-up study of 53,556 participants in the population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Norway. Cognitive, social, and affective components of the sense of humor were obtained, and associations with all-cause mortality, mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), infections, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases were estimated by hazard ratios (HRs).
After multivariate adjustments, high scores on the cognitive component of the sense of humor were significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality in women (HR = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.33-0.81), but not in men (HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.59-1.32). Mortality due to CVD was significantly lower in women with high scores on the cognitive component (HR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.15-0.47), and so was mortality due to infections both in men (HR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.09-0.74) and women (HR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.04-0.76). The social and affective components of the sense of humor were not associated with mortality. In the total population, the positive association between the cognitive component of sense of humor and survival was present until the age of 85 years.
The cognitive component of the sense of humor is positively associated with survival from mortality related to CVD and infections in women and with infection-related mortality in men. The findings indicate that sense of humor is a health-protecting cognitive coping resource.
The aetiology of abortions and calf mortality in 65 Danish cattle herds consisting of both dairy and beef breeds during a 1-year period is described. All observed aborted foetuses, still-born calves, and calves dying before 6 months of age were necropsied, and relevant microbiological examinations were performed. A total of 240 calves and 66 abortions were submitted corresponding to a calf mortality rate of 7%. The abortion frequency could not be calculated. 43% of the calves died at day 0, while 22% were aborted, 15% died during the first week of life, 9% died from 1 to 4 weeks of age, and 11% died at the age of 1 to 6 months. The most common cause was neonatal pulmonic atelectasis (stillbirth) followed by foetal infections, pneumonia, and septicaemia.
The WHO within the framework of extended immunization program assumes a significant increase of the number of vaccine controlled infections by 2020 - 2025 to 27 - 37 including protection from diseases of parasitic etiology. Russia contributes to the international efforts of the WHO to control infections with vaccine prophylaxis. The national calendar of prophylaxis vaccinations currently provides vaccination against 11 infections--tuberculosis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, measles, rubella, epidemic parotitis, influenza, haemophilus type B infection. Significant progress in reduction of infectious morbidity controlled by means of specific prophylaxis has been made in the country.
Neonatal mortality (NNM) was investigated in the region of the University Central Hospital of Turku (UCHT), Finland, during a 15-year period from 1968 till 1982. During the study period 81 620 liveborn infants were born. The NNM rate declined from 13.5 in 1968 to 3.0 in 1982 during the study period. Significant declines occurred in NNM due to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and asphyxia. The decline in NNM was more obvious during the early neonatal period (0-6 days after birth) and in the low birth weight (LBW) group (BW less than 2500 g). We believe that centralization of obstetric and neonatal services in risk cases and the new neonatal intensive care accounted for the decline in NNM.
Results of special parasitological dissections of roach samples from catches with the same fishing gear and at the same station (Monakhovo Cove, Chivyrkui Bay of the Lake Baikal) and at the same time in different years (1998-2002) are given. Stability of age-related dynamics of roach infection rate with Ligula intestinalisis in different years with the maximum of prevalence and mean abundance in fish of 3+ age, and the following sharp decrease in these rates in elder age groups, was revealed. Basing on prevalence decreasing of a single roach generation, the rate of fish mortality during its growth from age group 3+ to 4+ was estimated as 15.9-20.7%.
INTRODUCTION: Analysis of deaths during and up to one month after discharge from hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 2006, all deaths during and up to one month after discharge were identified for patients admitted to hospital in Roskilde or Køge. Age, acute or planned hospitalisation, duration of in-hospital stay, department of discharge and main diagnose were registered. RESULTS: Out of 50,302 hospitalisations, 2.2% had a fatal outcome during hospitalisation, whereas 2.1% died within the following month. During hospitalisation, the proportion of deaths among patients with either planned or acute admission was 1.1% and 2.6%, respectively. For several diagnose groups the risk of death during the first month after discharge was higher than that of fatal outcome during hospitalisation. The diagnose groups most frequently related to fatal outcome were cancers, infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases and respiratory diseases. Pneumonia was the most prevalent benign diagnosis for fatal cases during hospitalisation. Data are provided for mortality related to diagnose and age group. The incidence of fatal outcome increased with the length of in-patient stay. CONCLUSION: Analysis of fatality rates also during planned hospitalisations and within the first month after acute as well as planned hospitalisations should be in focus when planning quality improvement projects.
There were 132 maternal deaths in British Columbia in the years 1963 to 1970. The mean maternal mortality rate for these eight years was 0.317. Sixty of these deaths (45.5%) were due to direct obstetrical causes. Indirect and nonrelated deaths accounted for 21.2 and 33.3% of the total, respectively. The most common causes of direct obstetrical deaths were hemorrhage, infection and vascular accidents, in that order; pre-eclampsia ranked a distant fourth. Ninety-five percent of direct obstetrical deaths were probably avoidable. Approximately 27% of all direct obstetrical deaths were abortion-related. Hemorrhage continues to be a major problem, in particular among the native Indian women of the province.If further reduction in maternal mortality is to be achieved, obstetrical hemorrhage must be better managed and deaths due to abortions reduced. Future studies should reveal if the liberalized abortion laws will assist in the realization of the latter goal.
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1965 Jan 23;92:160-7014232190
In a 20 July 2006 report, a Québec Coroner criticized Correctional Service Canada's (CSC) handling of a prisoner who died of HIV-related complication while imprisoned. The Coroner recommended that CSC change the way it handles cases of medical parole.
To investigate an outbreak of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an intensive care unit (ICU).
Epidemiologic investigation, environmental assessment, and ambidirectional cohort study.
A secondary-care university hospital with a 10-bed ICU.
All patients admitted to the ICU receiving ventilator treatment from December 1, 1999, to September 1, 2000.
An outbreak in an ICU with multidrug-resistant isolates of P aeruginosa belonging to one amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP)-defined genetic cluster was identified, characterized, and cleared. Molecular typing of bacterial isolates with AFLP made it possible to identify the outbreak and make rational decisions during the outbreak period. The outbreak included 19 patients during the study period. Infection with bacterial isolates belonging to the AFLP cluster was associated with reduced survival (odds ratio, 5.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.14 to 24.26). Enhanced barrier and hygiene precautions, cohorting of patients, and altered antibiotic policy were not sufficient to eliminate the outbreak. At the end of the study period (in July), there was a change in the outbreak pattern from long (December to June) to short (July) incubation times before colonization and from primarily tracheal colonization (December to June) to primarily gastric or enteral July) colonization. In this period, the bacterium was also isolated from water taps.
Complete elimination of the outbreak was achieved after weekly pasteurization of the water taps of the ICU and use of sterile water as a solvent in the gastric tubes.