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451 records – page 1 of 46.

[4-year experiences with computer-assisted registration of postoperative wound infections and identification of risk factors].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature226352
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1991 May 13;153(20):1416-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-13-1991
Author
A. Bremmelgaard
A M Sørensen
E. Brems-Dalgaard
D. Raahave
J V Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Frederiksberg Hospital, klinisk mikrobiologisk afdeling.
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1991 May 13;153(20):1416-9
Date
May-13-1991
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Automatic Data Processing
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Surgical Wound Infection - epidemiology - etiology
Abstract
A continuous record of postoperative surgical infections was carried out by electronic data processing of 9,181 orthopaedic and general operations. The overall infection rate was 5.7%, ranging from 2.0% (clean wounds) to 22.1% (dirty wounds). The corresponding deep infection rates were 1.7%, 0.4% and 5.4%, respectively. Employing a multiple logistic regression analysis, ten risk factors were evaluated. Factors found to be significant for both departments were: wound contamination, duration of operation and age. In addition, in the department of orthopaedic surgery: date of operation and surgeon, and in the department of general surgery: planning of operation, length of preoperative stay and anatomic groups. Sex had no influence on postoperative infection. Significant factors altered during the four years. Postoperative stay was, on an average, 13.9 days longer in infected patients.
PubMed ID
2028549 View in PubMed
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A 6-month prospective study of hospital-acquired bacteremia in Copenhagen county.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34967
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1996;28(6):601-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
1996
Author
A G Jensen
A. Kirstein
I. Jensen
J. Scheibel
F. Espersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Herlev University Hospital, Denmark.
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1996;28(6):601-8
Date
1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Bacteremia - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology
Comparative Study
Cross Infection - epidemiology - etiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Male
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Abstract
During a 6-month period, 892 positive blood cultures were detected in the Copenhagen County hospitals. 302 (34%) were regarded as contaminations, and of the remaining cases 419 (71%) were community-acquired and 171 (29%) hospital-acquired, giving incidence rates of 6.8/1,000 admissions and 2.8/1,000 admissions, respectively. Both frequency and rate of hospital-acquired bacteremia were lower compared to most other studies. E. coli was more commonly found in community-acquired infections, while coagulase-negative staphylococci were the organisms most often considered as a contaminant. The main causative organisms in hospital-acquired infections were S. aureus (n = 37) and E. coli (n = 34). The proportion of polymicrobial bacteremias in this study was lower compared to most other studies (8%). E. coli from hospital-acquired infections were resistant to ampicillin in 42% of cases, but other Enterobacteriaceae showed higher percentage of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. S. aureus was penicillin-resistant in 92% of cases, but no methicillin-resistant strains were isolated. The frequency of antibiotic resistance was low compared to reports from other countries. A total of 136 hospital-acquired cases were followed prospectively. 61% of the patients were male and 46% were > or = 60 years of age. Most patients had predisposing diseases, 90% had foreign body and/or recent surgery performed, and 74 (54%) had an intraveneous catheter. The portal of entry was known in 132 (97%) of the cases, the most common being the urinary tract (42%), followed by an intravenous catheter (30%). The prevalence of urinary tract catheters gave an increased number of cases with E. coli bacteremia. The mortality was 16%.
PubMed ID
9060064 View in PubMed
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Acute gastroenteritis in children attending day-care centres with special reference to rotavirus infections. I. Aetiology and epidemiologic aspects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature38790
Source
Acta Paediatr Scand. 1987 Sep;76(5):754-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1987
Author
K. Hjelt
A. Paerregaard
O H Nielsen
P C Grauballe
K. Gaarslev
W. Holten-Andersen
M. Tvede
F. Orskov
P A Krasilnikoff
Author Affiliation
Department of Paediatrics, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark.
Source
Acta Paediatr Scand. 1987 Sep;76(5):754-62
Date
Sep-1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Age Factors
Child Day Care Centers
Child, Preschool
Denmark
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology
Humans
Infant
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Rotavirus Infections - epidemiology - etiology
Seasons
Abstract
Acute gastroenteritis (GE) among 214 children (aged 6 months-7 years) attending day-care centres (DDCs) in the Copenhagen County was studied during a 12-month period. A total of 197 cases of GE was observed in 109 children (i.e. 51% of the participants). The aetiology was as follows: rotavirus (n = 48) (24%), pathogenic bacteria (n = 11) (6%), Giardia lamblia (n = 3) (2%), while the aetiology of 68% remains unknown. The pathogenic bacteria included Yersinia enterocolitica, thermophilic Campylobacter, Clostridium difficile (+/- toxin) and enteropathogenic E. coli. In 4% of the GE the infections were multiple and Cryptosporidium was seen in one of these cases. The rate of GE declined with age from 1.35 GE per child per year (age group 1.0- less than 2.0 years) to 0.36 (6.0- less than 8.0 years). Serum sampled at the start of the study period showed that the frequency of detectable rotavirus IgG increased with age from 48% in the 6 months- less than 1.0 year group to 96% in the 4.0- less than 7.0 year group. The highest rates of rotavirus GE occurred from January to April (i.e. the rotavirus season). Moreover, rotavirus GE was almost absent after the age of 4. Hence, the rates of rotavirus GE per rotavirus season per child were 0.80 (age group 6 months-less than 1.0 year), 0.32 (1.0-less than 2.0), 0.14 (2.0-less than 3.0), 0.16 (3.0-less than 4.0), 0.06 (4.0-less than 5.0) and 0.04 (5.0-less than 6.0). Only 2 out of the 48 rotavirus GE were reinfections.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
3661178 View in PubMed
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Acute infections and environmental exposure to organochlorines in Inuit infants from Nunavik.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4455
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Oct;112(14):1359-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2004
Author
Frédéric Dallaire
Eric Dewailly
Gina Muckle
Carole Vézina
Sandra W Jacobson
Joseph L Jacobson
Pierre Ayotte
Author Affiliation
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, and Public Health Research Unit, CHUQ-Laval University Medical Center, 945 Wolfe Street, Sainte-Foy, Québec G1V 5B3, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Oct;112(14):1359-65
Date
Oct-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adult
Cohort Studies
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - analysis - poisoning
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - poisoning
Female
Gastrointestinal Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Insecticides - analysis - poisoning
Inuits
Male
Otitis Media - epidemiology - etiology
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - poisoning
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Quebec - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Respiratory Tract Infections - epidemiology - etiology
Retrospective Studies
Abstract
The Inuit population of Nunavik (Canada) is exposed to immunotoxic organochlorines (OCs) mainly through the consumption of fish and marine mammal fat. We investigated the effect of perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) on the incidence of acute infections in Inuit infants. We reviewed the medical charts of a cohort of 199 Inuit infants during the first 12 months of life and evaluated the incidence rates of upper and lower respiratory tract infections (URTI and LRTIs, respectively), otitis media, and gastrointestinal (GI) infections. Maternal plasma during delivery and infant plasma at 7 months of age were sampled and assayed for PCBs and DDE. Compared to rates for infants in the first quartile of exposure to PCBs (least exposed), adjusted rate ratios for infants in higher quartiles ranged between 1.09 and 1.32 for URTIs, 0.99 and 1.39 for otitis, 1.52 and 1.89 for GI infections, and 1.16 and 1.68 for LRTIs during the first 6 months of follow-up. For all infections combined, the rate ratios ranged from 1.17 to 1.27. The effect size was similar for DDE exposure but was lower for the full 12-month follow-up. Globally, most rate ratios were > 1.0, but few were statistically significant (p
PubMed ID
15471725 View in PubMed
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Adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: the presence of human papillomavirus and the method of detection.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature18218
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2003 Oct;82(10):960-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2003
Author
Sonia Andersson
Barbro Larson
Anders Hjerpe
Claes Silfverswärd
Jan Sällström
Erik Wilander
Eva Rylander
Author Affiliation
Institute for Clinical Science, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Huddinge University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. sonia.andersson@telia.com
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2003 Oct;82(10):960-5
Date
Oct-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenocarcinoma - epidemiology - etiology - virology
Adult
Age Factors
Contraceptives, Oral
DNA, Viral - analysis
Female
Humans
Medical Records
Middle Aged
Neoplasm Metastasis
Papillomavirus, Human - isolation & purification
Papovaviridae Infections - epidemiology - etiology
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational
Predictive value of tests
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Smoking
Sweden - epidemiology
Tumor Virus Infections - epidemiology - etiology
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology - virology
Vaginal Smears - standards
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Effective screening programs have contributed to a decrease in the incidence of cervical squamous cell carcinomas but have had a limited sensitivity in the detection of adenocarcinoma precursor lesions. The aim of our study was to analyze cervical adenocarcinoma in greater detail: symptoms preceding the detection, the method of detection and the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) with respect to age at diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical data were abstracted from the medical records of 82 women with pure invasive cervical adenocarcinomas. As diagnostic tools we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and/or direct DNA sequencing for HPV detection. RESULTS: Age at diagnosis predicting factors were HPV status, positive lymph nodes, histology and stage. HPV-negativity, lymph node metastases, advanced stage and poor differentiation were all associated with a high diagnostic age. In the multivariate analysis only HPV status was shown to have an independent impact on age at diagnosis, while stage showed only borderline significance. Twenty-three percent of the cancers were detected by screening and the remaining were due to different symptoms. Among the women considered, 93% had a normal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear 3 years before diagnosis and 60% within 1 year. There was no significant correlation between smoking, oral contraceptives and HPV-positivity. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of HPV was significantly associated with a high age at diagnosis. Pap screening had a limited effect in detecting adenocarcinoma at an early stage.
PubMed ID
12956848 View in PubMed
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Aetiologies and risk factors for neonatal sepsis and pneumonia mortality among Alaskan infants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6614
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2005 Oct;133(5):877-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2005
Author
B D Gessner
L. Castrodale
M. Soriano-Gabarro
Author Affiliation
Alaska Division of Public Health, Section of Epidemiology, Anchorage, Alaska 99524, USA. Brad_Gessner@health.state.ak.us
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2005 Oct;133(5):877-81
Date
Oct-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Candida - isolation & purification
Candidiasis - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology - mortality
Databases, Factual
Gram-Negative Bacteria - isolation & purification
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology - mortality
Gram-Positive Bacteria - isolation & purification
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology - mortality
Humans
Incidence
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature
Pneumonia - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology - mortality
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
Septicemia - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology - mortality
Abstract
We evaluated all fatal neonatal sepsis and pneumonia cases occurring in Alaska during 1992-2000. Risk factors were evaluated using a database of all births occurring during the study period. Of 32 cases, group B streptococcus (GBS) was isolated from 21% (all 7 days of age), non-GBS Gram-positive bacteria from 50% (53%
PubMed ID
16181508 View in PubMed
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Alcohol abuse: a risk factor for surgical wound infections?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207482
Source
Am J Infect Control. 1997 Oct;25(5):381-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1997
Author
A. Rantala
O P Lehtonen
J. Niinikoski
Author Affiliation
Department of Surgery, University of Turku, Finland.
Source
Am J Infect Control. 1997 Oct;25(5):381-6
Date
Oct-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alcoholism - complications - epidemiology
Chi-Square Distribution
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Surgery Department, Hospital - statistics & numerical data
Surgical Wound Infection - epidemiology - etiology
Survival Rate
Abstract
The incidence of postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs) is difficult to estimate because of the current trend of early discharge after surgery. Both operation-related and host factors should be taken into consideration in the prevention of SSIs. We wanted to determine the actual incidence of SSIs and evaluate the risk factors in our clinic, using an extended follow-up period of 30 days after operations.
We performed a prospective follow-up survey of SSIs over a 3.5-month period including a 1-month follow-up after discharge with written instructions and a telephone survey. The SSIs were defined according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Forty-three patient parameters were recorded, and risk factors for SSI were sought and tested by using multiple logistic regression analysis.
The follow-up was completed in 772 of 807 patients. The SSI rates in these patients were 5.3% in clean, 7.1% in clean-contaminated, 6.2% in contaminated, and 28.1% in dirty operations. Seventy-one percent of infections were not diagnosed until after discharge from the hospital. According to multiple logistic regression analysis, alcohol abuse (p
PubMed ID
9343620 View in PubMed
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Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of Clostridium novyi, C. perfringens and Bacillus cereus isolated from injecting drug users during 2000.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187678
Source
J Med Microbiol. 2002 Nov;51(11):990-1000
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2002
Author
J. McLauchlin
J E Salmon
S. Ahmed
J S Brazier
M M Brett
R C George
J. Hood
Author Affiliation
Division of Gastrointestinal Infections, PHLS Central Public Health Laboratory, London. jmclauchlin@phls.org.uk
Source
J Med Microbiol. 2002 Nov;51(11):990-1000
Date
Nov-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bacillaceae Infections - epidemiology - etiology
Bacillus cereus - genetics - isolation & purification
Clostridium - genetics - isolation & purification
Clostridium Infections - epidemiology - etiology
DNA, Bacterial - analysis
Female
Great Britain - epidemiology
Heroin
Humans
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
Substance-Related Disorders - complications
Wound Infection - microbiology
Abstract
As part of the follow-up investigations associated with an outbreak of severe illness and death among illegal injecting drug users during 2000, 43 cultures of Clostridium novyi type A, 40 C. perfringens type A and 6 isolates of Bacillus cereus were characterised by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. Among the 43 C. novyi isolates, 23 different AFLP profiles were detected. The same AFLP profile was detected in isolates from 18 drug users investigated during 2000 from Scotland, England, the Republic of Ireland and Norway and a wound from a patient in 2000 who was not identified as a drug user. Unique AFLP profiles were obtained from four drug users from England and the Republic of Ireland, 10 historical isolates from culture collections, an isolate from food (1989) and three isolates from wounds (1995, 1991, 1988). The 40 C. perfringens isolates were from 13 drug users, the contents of one syringe and two samples of heroin. Sixteen AFLP types of C. perfringens were distinguished and there was little evidence for commonality among the isolates. The AFLP types of C. perfringens from heroin differed and were unique. Six isolates of B. cereus were from four drug users and two samples of heroin. Four different AFLP patterns were distinguished. Three AFLP types were isolated from four drug users. B. cereus isolates from an aspirate and a heroin sample collected from the same drug user were identical, and were also indistinguishable from an isolate from a groin infection in a second drug user. The AFLP type of the isolate from a second and unrelated heroin sample was unique. The AFLP results showed no or very limited evidence for commonality between the different isolates of B. cereus and C. perfringens. In marked contrast, the C. novyi isolates from the majority of the drug users during 2000 were homogeneous, suggesting a common source or clonal selection of a C. novyi type, or both, which either had an adaptive advantage in spore germination, survival or growth following the drug preparation and the injection procedure, or produced a more severe clinical presentation.
PubMed ID
12448684 View in PubMed
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[A new center for cooperation between veterinarians, physicians and ecologists].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142048
Source
Lakartidningen. 2010 Jun 2-8;107(22):1485-6
Publication Type
Article

451 records – page 1 of 46.