The benefits of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of HIV infection are well documented, but concerns regarding access and adherence to HAART are growing. We evaluated virological responses to HAART among HIV-1 infected patients who were injection drug users (IDUs) in a population-based setting where HIV/AIDS care is delivered free of charge.
We evaluated previously untreated HIV-1 infected men and women who initiated HAART between Aug. 1, 1996, and July 31, 2000, and who were followed until Mar. 31, 2002, in a province-wide HIV treatment program. We used Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression in our evaluation of time to suppression (i.e., less than 500 copies/mL) and rebound (i.e., 500 copies/mL or more) of plasma HIV-1 RNA, with patients stratified according to whether or not they had a history of injection drug use.
Overall, 1422 patients initiated HAART during the study period, of whom 359 (25.2%) were IDUs. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, the cumulative suppression rate at 12 months after initiation of HAART was 70.8% for non-IDUs and 51.4% for IDUs (p 0.1).
Non-IDUs and IDUs had similar rates of HIV-1 RNA suppression and rebound after the initiation of HAART, once lower levels of adherence were taken into account. Nevertheless, the lower virological response rates among IDUs suggest that, unless interventions are undertaken to improve adherence, these patients may experience elevated rates of disease progression and use of medical services in our setting.
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HIV-positive individuals who use injection drugs (IDU) may have lower rates of adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, previous studies of factors associated with adherence to ART among IDU have been limited primarily to samples drawn from clinical settings and in areas with financial barriers to healthcare.We evaluated patterns of ART adherence and rates of plasma HIV RNA response among a Canadian cohort of community-recruited IDU. Using data from a community-recruited cohort of antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected IDU, we investigated ART adherence patterns based on prescription refill compliance and factors associated with time to plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression (
In HIV-infected drinkers, alcohol types more likely to cause inflammation could plausibly increase the risk of HIV disease progression. We therefore assessed the association between alcohol type and plasma HIV RNA level (HIV viral load) among HIV-infected drinkers not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Russia and Uganda. We analyzed the data of participants from cohorts in Russia and Uganda and assessed their HIV viral load at enrollment by the alcohol type predominantly consumed. We defined predominant alcohol type as the alcohol type contributing >50% of total alcohol consumption in the 1 month (Russia) or 3 months (Uganda) prior to enrollment. Using multiple linear regression, we compared log10 HIV viral load by predominant alcohol type, controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic status, total number of standard drinks, frequency of drinking =6 drinks/occasion, and in Russia, history of injection drug use. Most participants (99.2% of 261 in Russia and 98.9% of 352 in Uganda) predominantly drank one alcohol type. In Russia, we did not find evidence for differences in viral load levels between drinkers of fortified wine (n = 5) or hard liquor (n = 49), compared to drinkers of beer/low-ethanol-content cocktails (n = 163); however, wine/high-ethanol-content cocktail drinkers (n = 42) had higher mean log10 viral load than beer/low-ethanol-content cocktail drinkers (ß = 0.38, 95% CI 0.07-0.69; p = 0.02). In Uganda, we did not find evidence for differences in viral load levels between drinkers of locally-brewed beer (n = 41), commercially-distilled spirits (n = 38), or locally-distilled spirits (n = 43), compared to drinkers of commercially-made beer (n = 218); however, wine drinkers (n = 8) had lower mean log10 HIV viral load (ß = -0.65, 95% CI -1.36 to 0.07, p = 0.08), although this did not reach statistical significance. Among HIV-infected drinkers not yet on ART in Russia and Uganda, we observed an association between the alcohol type predominantly consumed and the HIV viral load level in the Russia sample. These exploratory results suggest that, in addition to total number of drinks and drinking patterns, alcohol type might be a dimension of alcohol use that merits examination in studies of HIV and alcohol related outcomes.
Cites: J Phys Chem B. 2009 Feb 19;113(7):1983-92 PMID 19199697
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence research has focused predominantly on individuals with less than optimal clinical outcomes; therefore, little is known about the experiences of individuals who sustain undetectable viral loads. The present study used a qualitative method to explore how individuals who have sustained undetectable viral loads account for their success, and to identify challenges, as well as possible needs, for continued success. Participants were 20 patients at an outpatient infectious disease clinic in an urban center. Participants completed two 60-minute interviews. The Critical Incident Technique was used to identify and classify critical incidents linked with sustaining treatment success. Of the 438 critical incidents collected, 316 were identified as helpful and 122 were identified as unhelpful. Helpful categories included resolving ambivalence, using personal strengths, and fostering helpful relationships. Unhelpful categories were mood, lack of social support, financial difficulties, and medication factors. Doing well on antiretroviral therapy is a dynamic process that requires ongoing attention from both the patient and care provider. The results of this study highlight the efforts of patients to maintain their health and remind care providers not to assume that patients are not facing continuous challenges. Findings from the present study suggest that psychosocial factors do contribute to improved clinical outcomes in patients taking HAART.
In 2012, blood, skin and soft tissue infections caused by clindamycin resistant Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus; GAS) appeared to be increasing in the Helsinki metropolitan area. We compared monthly percentages of clindamycin resistant isolates in the area between 2012 and 2013, with those in 2010 and 2011. Resistance frequency in terms of patient age was also studied. We reviewed the medical records of bacteraemic cases in 2012 and 2013 and linked the data to emm types. To inform on the emm distribution among GAS isolated from skin and soft tissue infections during the epidemic, GAS isolates of one month (March 2013) were emm typed. For GAS blood, skin, and soft tissue isolates taken together, the proportions of clindamycin resistant isolates were significantly higher in 2012 and 2013 (23% and 17%, respectively) compared with the two previous years (3%, p
To investigate the incidence and outcome of driveline infections in patients supported with a continuous flow left ventricular assist device (HeartMate II (HMII)) and to study the microbiological aetiology.
Retrospective analysis of 31 patients who received an implantation of a HMII. Follow-up was from implantation to either device explantation, death or closure of the study. Clinical signs of infections were divided into superficial, deep or systemic and compared to culture and gram stain, the clinical course and infectious parameters.
The incidence of driveline infections was 1.65 episodes per patient per year. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most common bacterial aetiology. More than two weeks of treatment was required in 81% of the patients. In terms of detecting superficial driveline infections, leucocyte count demonstrated a sensitivity of 27% and C-reactive protein (CRP) a sensitivity of 28%. In 22 cases of driveline infections plasma pro-calcitonin was found to be normal.
Driveline infections are common in HMII recipients but primarily remain superficial and are reasonably easy to manage. Infectious agents mostly originate from the skin and gastrointestinal tract. Blood biomarkers did not appear to be helpful in detecting driveline infections.
In advanced HIV infection, the homeostatic balance between gastrointestinal indigenous bacteria and gut immunity fails and microbes are able to overcome the intestinal barrier and gain the systemic circulation. Because microbial translocation is not fully controlled by antiviral therapy and is associated with inefficient CD4+ reconstitution, we investigated the profile of translocating bacteria in peripheral blood of 44 HIV-infected patients starting therapy with advanced CD4+ T-lymphopenia and displaying poor CD4+ recovery on virologically suppressive HAART. According to CD4+ reconstitution at 12-months HAART, patients were considered Partial Immunological Responders, PIRs (CD4+=250/µl, n?=?29) and Immunological non Responders, INRs (CD4+
To provide background on five HIV-infected cohorts with documented seroconversion times and serum immunoglobulin (Ig) A and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2M), CD4+ cell count and haemoglobin levels. To give a relative risks (RR) regression summary of the prognostic value of serial CD4+ cell count, IgA, beta 2M and haemoglobin measurements for clinical AIDS, and to examine whether cofactors such as current age, sex and exposure category affect these RR.
The Multicohort Analysis Project (MAP) workshop was an international collaboration which brought statisticians, immunologists and clinicians from the five cohorts to work together for 10 days. A predefined restricted database was made available by each cohort for the workshop.
The Medical Research Council (MRC) Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge, UK hosted the MAP workshop from 19 to 30 April 1993.
MAP workshop database comprised 1744 patients with documented HIV seroconversion times, with 407 women, over 900 injecting drug users (IDU) and over 500 homosexual men; 363 patients had AIDS and there were 308 deaths.
Descriptive statistics on survival and progression to clinical AIDS by cohort and exposure category, CD4+ cell count at AIDS diagnosis and pre-AIDS zidovudine therapy. RR summarizing the joint prognostic significance of serial markers and cofactors such as age, sex and exposure category for progression to clinical AIDS.
Slower progression to AIDS for IDU [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.35-0.71] and heterosexuals (95% CI, 0.19-0.98) compared with homosexual men was confirmed after adjusting for current age-group and serial CD4+ cell counts. CD4+ cell counts at AIDS diagnosis were much higher among homosexual men before than after 1988 (median, 150 and 90 x 10(6)/l, respectively). Little zidovudine use was observed among AIDS cases diagnosed before 1988 (2%) but increased use was recorded after 1988 and 1989 (24%) and even greater use after 1990 (59%). Low serial CD4+ cell count, haemoglobin levels and high serum IgA and beta 2M levels were associated with an increased risk of progression to AIDS. CD4+ cell count always provided prognostic information in addition to other markers; IgA and beta 2M (95% CI, 1.23-1.50 and 105-1.51, respectively) were jointly prognostic. beta 2M did not provide significant extra information (95% CI, 0.91-1.47) to the combination of serial CD4+ cell count and IgA, although haemoglobin did (95% CI: 0.74-0.91 for 10 g/l increase in haemoglobin). Interactions between cofactors, particularly exposure category and serial markers, were used to test for modifications in RR. The association between AIDS risk and serial CD4+ cell count was weaker, and with elevated IgA stronger, for homosexual men; RR associated with high beta 2M values were lower for IDU, in whom beta 2M may be elevated for reasons other than HIV disease.
IgA and beta 2M, which can be measured in small volumes of stored blood, are jointly predictive of progression to AIDS. Results were broadly consistent between cohorts representing different age-groups, seroconversion periods and exposure categories. Some regression effect modifications by exposure category were noted, however, which merit further independent study.