Endoscopy is an integral part of the investigation and management of gastrointestinal disease. We aimed to examine outcomes of pregnancies for women who underwent endoscopy during their pregnancy.
We performed a nationwide population-based cohort study, linking data from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry (for births from 1992 through 2011) with those from the Swedish Patient Registry. We identified 3052 pregnancies exposed to endoscopy (2025 upper endoscopies, 1109 lower endoscopies, and 58 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographies). Using Poisson regression, we calculated adjusted relative risks (ARRs) for adverse outcomes of pregnancy according to endoscopy status using 1,589,173 unexposed pregnancies as reference. To consider the effects of disease activity, we examined pregnancy outcomes (preterm birth, stillbirth, small for gestational age, or congenital malformations) in women who underwent endoscopy just before or after pregnancy. Secondary outcome measures included induction of labor, low birth weight (