Mortality, major neurological handicaps--including mental retardation, cerebral palsy and epilepsy--educational subnormality and height at 14 years of age were studied by birth weight percentiles in a birth cohort of 12 000 children from northern Finland. Infant mortality was significantly higher below the mean -2 SD, 10th and 25th percentiles, than in the median class, from 25th to 75th percentiles, but mortality from one to 14 years only in the lowest weight class. Educational subnormality, including mental retardation +/- some other handicap, was highly significantly more frequent in all the percentile classes lower than the median class but showed no significant tendency to be less frequent in the percentiles over the median. It was also highly significantly more frequent among the preterm than the term infant. The number of children with a major neurological handicap but normal school performance did not vary significantly by birth weight percentiles or by gestational age. Height at 14 years increased significantly by birth weight percentiles. The height of the boys with birth weight mean - and +2 SD was nevertheless within the 25th-75th percentiles for height at 14 years in general, while the height of the girls came close to these percentile limits. The preterm infants were significantly shorter than the term infants at 14 years.
Adiponectin levels measured in neonatal dried blood spot samples (DBSS) might be affected by both prematurity and being born small for gestational age (SGA). The aim of the study was to measure adiponectin levels in routinely collected neonatal DBSS taken on day 5 (range 3-12) postnatal from infants.
A retrospective case-control study.
One hundred and twenty-two infants: 62 very premature (34 SGA) and 60 mature infants (27 SGA). Adiponectin concentrations were determined in stored neonatal DBSS using a sandwich immunoassay based on flow metric Luminex xMap technology.
Adiponectin was measurable in all samples, and repeated measurements correlated significantly (r = 0.94). Adiponectin concentrations were negatively associated with both SGA (B = -0.283, P = 0.04) and prematurity (B = -2.194, P
To estimate the effect of maternal age on survival free of major morbidity among preterm newborns younger than 33 weeks of gestation at birth.
Data from a retrospective cohort of preterm newborns younger than 33 weeks of gestation admitted to Canadian neonatal intensive care units between 2003 and 2008 were analyzed. The primary outcome was survival without major morbidity (defined as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3 or 4, periventricular leukomalacia, retinopathy of prematurity stage 3, 4 or 5, or necrotizing enterocolitis stage 2 or 3). Trends in outcomes in relation to maternal age groups were examined using a multivariable analysis that controlled for confounders.
Baseline comparison for the 12,326 eligible newborns revealed no differences in sex, small-for-gestational-age status, and chorioamnionitis among different maternal age groups. Higher rates of cesarean delivery, use of prenatal steroids, maternal hypertension, and diabetes were noted as maternal age increased (P
Previous studies have suggested a propensity towards morningness in teenagers and adults born preterm. We set out to study sleep in a subsample from The Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults cohort, with emphasis on sleep timing, duration, and quality. We compared young adults who were born prematurely at very low birth weight (VLBW;?
To compare the rates of low birth weight, preterm delivery and small for gestational age (SGA), in pregnancy outcomes among women who were exposed and nonexposed to antidepressants during pregnancy.
At The Motherisk Program, we analyzed pregnancy outcomes of 1,243 women in our database who took various antidepressants during their pregnancy. Nine hundred and twenty-eight of these women and 928 nonexposed women who delivered a live born infant were matched for age, (+/-2 years), smoking and alcohol use and specific pregnancy outcomes were compared between the two groups.
There were 82 (8.8%) preterm deliveries in the antidepressant group and 50 (5.4%) in the comparison group. OR: 1.7 (95% CI: 1.18-2.45). There were 89 (9.6%) in the antidepressant group and 76 (8.2%) in the comparison group who delivered babies evaluated as SGA; OR: 1.19 (95% CI: 0.86-1.64). The mean birth weight in the antidepressant group was 3,449+/-591 g and 3,455+/-515 g in the comparison group (P=.8).
The use of antidepressants in pregnancy appears to be associated with a small, but statistically significant increased rate in the incidence of preterm births, confirming results from several other studies. It is difficult to ascertain whether this small increased rate of preterm births is confounded by depression, antidepressants, or both. However, we did not find a statistically significant difference in the incidence of SGA or lower birth weight. This information adds to limited data available in the literature regarding these outcomes following the use of antidepressants in pregnancy.
Department of Women's and Children's Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, and the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset (KI SÖS), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, and the Centre for Clinical Research, Dalarna, Falun, Sweden; and the Center for Evidence Based Practice, Faculty of Health Sciences, Bergen University College, and the Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
To investigate the association between advanced maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcomes and to compare the risks related to advanced maternal age with those related to smoking and being overweight or obese.
A population-based register study including all nulliparous women aged 25 years and older with singleton pregnancies at 22 weeks of gestation or greater who gave birth in Sweden and Norway from 1990 to 2010; 955,804 women were analyzed. In each national sample, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of very preterm birth, moderately preterm birth, small for gestational age, low Apgar score, fetal death, and neonatal death in women aged 30-34 years (n=319,057), 35-39 years (n=94,789), and 40 years or older (n=15,413) were compared with those of women aged 25-29 years (n=526,545). In the Swedish sample, the number of additional cases of each outcome associated with maternal age 30 years or older, smoking, and overweight or obesity, respectively, was estimated in relation to a low-risk group of nonsmokers of normal weight and aged 25-29 years.
The adjusted OR of all outcomes increased by maternal age in a similar way in Sweden and Norway; and the risk of fetal death was increased even in the 30- to 34-year-old age group (Sweden n=826, adjusted OR 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.37; Norway n=472, adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.12-1.41). Maternal age 30 years or older was associated with the same number of additional cases of fetal deaths (n=251) as overweight or obesity (n=251).
For the individual woman, the absolute risk for each of the outcomes was small, but for society, it may be significant as a result of the large number of women who give birth after the age of 30 years.
Birth-weight-gestational-age standards help to identify infants in need of special care and to determine causes and means for preventing retardation of intrauterine growth. Previously published standards either were based on small samples, data several decades old or characteristics of subpopulations in the United States or they were not specific for type of birth and sex. We compared the data for live births in 1972 with those in 1986 to develop current Canadian standards for type of birth (singleton or twin) and sex. We found that the 10th, 50th and 90th percentile figures for weight were slightly higher in 1986 than in 1972 for term deliveries (at 37 weeks' gestation or later), but the figures were virtually unchanged for preterm deliveries. The availability of reliable population-based standards should enhance the clinician's ability to identify true cases of retardation or acceleration of intrauterine growth.
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To study associations of placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) in maternal circulation with the risk of preeclampsia with and without fetal growth restriction.
Nested case-control study.
A cohort of 29 948 pregnant women in Norway.
Cases were identified through linkage to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We selected 69 preterm and 36 term preeclampsia cases with delivery of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infant, 83 preterm and 154 term preeclampsia cases without SGA delivery, and 384 normotensive controls.
We measured PlGF and sFlt-1 in maternal serum samples from each trimester.
Odds ratios of preeclampsia subtypes by tertile categories of PlGF and sFlt-1.
Low (lowest third) PlGF and sFlt-1 levels in the first trimester, and low (lowest third) increase in PlGF and strong (highest third) increase in sFlt-1 from first to second trimester were associated with increased risk of preterm preeclampsia, both with and without SGA offspring. For term preeclampsia with SGA offspring, the associations were similar to the findings for preterm preeclampsia. For term preeclampsia without SGA offspring, low increase in PlGF from first to second trimester and high sFlt-1 in the third trimester were associated with increased risk.
Low PlGF and high sFlt-1 levels in maternal circulation are associated with subsequent development of preeclampsia, regardless of whether fetal growth is affected or not. For term preeclampsia without fetal growth restriction, the imbalance in angiogenic factors seems to appear later in pregnancy than for preterm preeclampsia.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased concentrations of the N-terminal peptide of proatrial natriuretic peptide and of atrial natriuretic peptide are related to the severity of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 70 healthy pregnant women, 48 women with preeclampsia, and 19 women with gestational hypertension in the third trimester. We used a specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) method suitable for the determination of the plasma N-terminal peptide of proatrial natriuretic peptide in unextracted plasma. The atrial natriuretic peptide was measured by RIA from Sep-Pak C18-extracted plasma. RESULTS: The N-terminal peptide of proatrial natriuretic peptide levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic women than in healthy pregnant controls (median 571 [range 189-2000] versus 266 pmol/L [80-634], P