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Adverse Neonatal Outcomes in Overweight and Obese Adolescents Compared with Normal Weight Adolescents and Low Risk Adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299300
Source
J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2019 Apr; 32(2):139-145
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Apr-2019
Author
Anna Ramö Isgren
Preben Kjølhede
Marie Blomberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
Source
J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2019 Apr; 32(2):139-145
Date
Apr-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Body mass index
Body Weight
Cohort Studies
Female
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Pediatric Obesity - complications
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - etiology
Pregnancy Outcome - epidemiology
Pregnancy in Adolescence - statistics & numerical data
Registries
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
To evaluate the association between maternal body mass index and neonatal outcomes in adolescents and to compare neonatal outcomes between overweight and obese adolescents and obstetric low-risk adult women.
Retrospective cohort study using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register.
Sweden.
All 31,386 primiparous adolescents younger than 20 years of age and 178,844 "standard" women, defined as normal weight, obstetric low-risk adult women who delivered between 1992 and 2013. The adolescents were categorized according to weight and height in early pregnancy into body mass index groups according to the World Health Organization classification. Logistic regression models were used.
Neonatal outcomes in relation to maternal body mass index groups.
In the adolescents, 6109/31,386 (19.5%) and 2287/31,386 (7.3%) were overweight and obese, respectively. Compared with normal weight adolescents, overweight adolescents had a lower risk of having small for gestational age neonates, and higher risks for having neonates with macrosomia, and being large for gestational age and with Apgar score less than 7 at 5 minutes. The obese adolescents had increased risk for having neonates being large for gestational age (3.8% vs 1.3%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.97 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.30-3.84]), with macrosomia (>4500 g) (4.6% vs 1.4%; aOR, 2.95 [95% CI, 2.33-3.73]), and with Apgar score less than 7 at 5 minutes (2.2% vs 1.1%; aOR, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.43-2.76]) than normal weight adolescents. Compared with the standard women, overweight and obese adolescents had overall more adverse neonatal outcomes.
Overweight and obese adolescents had predominantly increased risks for adverse neonatal outcomes compared with normal weight adolescents and standard women.
PubMed ID
30453030 View in PubMed
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Age-specific incidence of new asthma diagnoses in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296726
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017 Jan - Feb; 5(1):189-191.e3
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Letter
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Author
Hannu Kankaanranta
Leena E Tuomisto
Pinja Ilmarinen
Author Affiliation
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Seinäjoki Central Hospital, Seinäjoki, Finland; Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. Electronic address: hannu.kankaanranta@epshp.fi.
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017 Jan - Feb; 5(1):189-191.e3
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Letter
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Asthma - diagnosis
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Reimbursement Mechanisms
PubMed ID
27765463 View in PubMed
Less detail

An International Comparison of Death Classification at 22 to 25 Weeks' Gestational Age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299751
Source
Pediatrics. 2018 07; 142(1):
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
07-2018
Author
Lucy K Smith
Naho Morisaki
Nils-Halvdan Morken
Mika Gissler
Paromita Deb-Rinker
Jocelyn Rouleau
Stellan Hakansson
Michael R Kramer
Michael S Kramer
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom.
Source
Pediatrics. 2018 07; 142(1):
Date
07-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Canada
Female
Fetal Death
Finland
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant
Infant mortality
Infant, Newborn
Japan
Norway
Pregnancy
Registries
Survival Rate
Sweden
United Kingdom
United States
Abstract
To explore international differences in the classification of births at extremely low gestation and the subsequent impact on the calculation of survival rates.
We used national data on births at 22 to 25 weeks' gestation from the United States (2014; n = 11?144), Canada (2009-2014; n = 5668), the United Kingdom (2014-2015; n = 2992), Norway (2010-2014; n = 409), Finland (2010-2015; n = 348), Sweden (2011-2014; n = 489), and Japan (2014-2015; n = 2288) to compare neonatal survival rates using different denominators: all births, births alive at the onset of labor, live births, live births surviving to 1 hour, and live births surviving to 24 hours.
For births at 22 weeks' gestation, neonatal survival rates for which we used live births as the denominator varied from 3.7% to 56.7% among the 7 countries. This variation decreased when the denominator was changed to include stillbirths (ie, all births [1.8%-22.3%] and fetuses alive at the onset of labor [3.7%-38.2%]) or exclude early deaths and limited to births surviving at least 12 hours (50.0%-77.8%). Similar trends were seen for infants born at 23 weeks' gestation. Variation diminished considerably at 24 and 25 weeks' gestation.
International variation in neonatal survival rates at 22 to 23 weeks' gestation diminished considerably when including stillbirths in the denominator, revealing the variation arises in part from differences in the proportion of births reported as live births, which itself is closely connected to the provision of active care.
PubMed ID
29899042 View in PubMed
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Association Between Year of Birth and 1-Year Survival Among Extremely Preterm Infants in Sweden During 2004-2007 and 2014-2016.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299075
Source
JAMA. 2019 03 26; 321(12):1188-1199
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-26-2019
Author
Mikael Norman
Boubou Hallberg
Thomas Abrahamsson
Lars J Björklund
Magnus Domellöf
Aijaz Farooqi
Cathrine Foyn Bruun
Christian Gadsbøll
Lena Hellström-Westas
Fredrik Ingemansson
Karin Källén
David Ley
Karel MarÅ¡ál
Erik Normann
Fredrik Serenius
Olof Stephansson
Lennart Stigson
Petra Um-Bergström
Stellan Håkansson
Author Affiliation
Division of Pediatrics, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention, and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
JAMA. 2019 03 26; 321(12):1188-1199
Date
03-26-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Developmental Disabilities - epidemiology
Female
Fetal Viability
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant
Infant Mortality - trends
Infant, Extremely Premature
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature, Diseases - epidemiology
Intensive Care, Neonatal
Male
Prospective Studies
Stillbirth - epidemiology
Survival Rate
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Since 2004-2007, national guidelines and recommendations have been developed for the management of extremely preterm births in Sweden. If and how more uniform management has affected infant survival is unknown.
To compare survival of extremely preterm infants born during 2004-2007 with survival of infants born during 2014-2016.
All births at 22-26 weeks' gestational age (n?=?2205) between April 1, 2004, and March 31, 2007, and between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2016, in Sweden were studied. Prospective data collection was used during 2004-2007. Data were obtained from the Swedish pregnancy, medical birth, and neonatal quality registries during 2014-2016.
Delivery at 22-26 weeks' gestational age.
The primary outcome was infant survival to the age of 1 year. The secondary outcome was 1-year survival among live-born infants who did not have any major neonatal morbidity (specifically, without intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3-4, cystic periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity stage 3-5, or severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia).
During 2004-2007, 1009 births (3.3/1000 of all births) occurred at 22-26 weeks' gestational age compared with 1196 births (3.4/1000 of all births) during 2014-2016 (P?=?.61). One-year survival among live-born infants at 22-26 weeks' gestational age was significantly lower during 2004-2007 (497 of 705 infants [70%]) than during 2014-2016 (711 of 923 infants [77%]) (difference, -7% [95% CI, -11% to -2.2%], P?=?.003). One-year survival among live-born infants at 22-26 weeks' gestational age and without any major neonatal morbidity was significantly lower during 2004-2007 (226 of 705 infants [32%]) than during 2014-2016 (355 of 923 infants [38%]) (difference, -6% [95% CI, -11% to -1.7%], P?=?.008).
Among live births at 22-26 weeks' gestational age in Sweden, 1-year survival improved between 2004-2007 and 2014-2016.
Notes
CommentIn: JAMA. 2019 Mar 26;321(12):1163-1164 PMID 30912817
PubMed ID
30912837 View in PubMed
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Benzylpenicillin versus wide-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics as empirical treatment of Haemophilus influenzae-associated lower respiratory tract infections in adults; a retrospective propensity score-matched study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297898
Source
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2018 Sep; 37(9):1761-1775
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2018
Author
John Thegerström
Viktor Månsson
Kristian Riesbeck
Fredrik Resman
Author Affiliation
Riesbeck laboratory, Clinical Microbiology, Department of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Jan Waldenströms gata 59, SE-205 02, Malmö, Sweden. john.thegerstrom@med.lu.se.
Source
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2018 Sep; 37(9):1761-1775
Date
Sep-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anti-Bacterial Agents - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Bacteremia - drug therapy - microbiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Community-Acquired Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology - mortality
Female
Haemophilus Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology - mortality
Haemophilus influenzae - drug effects
Hospitalization
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Penicillin G - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Pneumonia - drug therapy - microbiology
Propensity Score
Respiratory Tract Infections - drug therapy - microbiology
Retrospective Studies
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
beta-Lactams - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Abstract
There is consensus that definitive therapy for infections with H. influenzae should include antimicrobial agents with clinical breakpoints against the bacterium. In Scandinavia, benzylpenicillin is the recommended empirical treatment for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) except in very severe cases. However, the effect of benzylpenicillin on H. influenzae infections has been debated. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of patients given benzylpenicillin with patients given wide-spectrum beta-lactams (WSBL) as empirical treatment of lower respiratory tract H. influenzae infections requiring hospital care. We identified 481 adults hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infection by H. influenzae, bacteremic and non-bacteremic. Overall, 30-day mortality was 9% (42/481). Thirty-day mortality, 30-day readmission rates, and early clinical response rates were compared in patients receiving benzylpenicillin (n?=?199) and a WSBL (n?=?213) as empirical monotherapy. After adjusting for potential confounders, empirical benzylpenicillin treatment was not associated with higher 30-day mortality neither in a multivariate logistic regression (aOR 2.03 for WSBL compared to benzylpenicillin, 95% CI 0.91-4.50, p?=?0.082), nor in a propensity score-matched analysis (aOR 2.14, 95% CI 0.93-4.92, p?=?0.075). Readmission rates did not significantly differ between the study groups, but early clinical response rates were significantly higher in the WSBL group (aOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21-4.31, p?=?0.011), albeit still high in both groups (84 vs 81%). In conclusion, despite early clinical response rates being slightly lower for benzylpenicillin compared to WSBL, we found no support for increased mortality or readmission rates in patients empirically treated with benzylpenicillin for lower respiratory tract infections by H. influenzae.
PubMed ID
29961165 View in PubMed
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Causes of death in childhood-onset Type 1 diabetes: long-term follow-up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290006
Source
Diabet Med. 2017 01; 34(1):56-63
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-2017

Child mortality in England compared with Sweden: a birth cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296015
Source
Lancet. 2018 05 19; 391(10134):2008-2018
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-19-2018
Author
Ania Zylbersztejn
Ruth Gilbert
Anders Hjern
Linda Wijlaars
Pia Hardelid
Author Affiliation
The Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research, London, UK; Population, Policy and Practice Programme, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, UK. Electronic address: ania.zylbersztejn@ucl.ac.uk.
Source
Lancet. 2018 05 19; 391(10134):2008-2018
Date
05-19-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Child Mortality
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
England - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant mortality
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome - epidemiology
Regression Analysis
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Child mortality is almost twice as high in England compared with Sweden. We aimed to establish the extent to which adverse birth characteristics and socioeconomic factors explain this difference.
We developed nationally representative cohorts of singleton livebirths between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2012, using the Hospital Episode Statistics in England, and the Swedish Medical Birth Register in Sweden, with longitudinal follow-up from linked hospital admissions and mortality records. We analysed mortality as the outcome, based on deaths from any cause at age 2-27 days, 28-364 days, and 1-4 years. We fitted Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for England compared with Sweden in all three age groups. The models were adjusted for birth characteristics (gestational age, birthweight, sex, and congenital anomalies), and for socioeconomic factors (maternal age and socioeconomic status).
The English cohort comprised 3?932?886 births and 11?392 deaths and the Swedish cohort comprised 1?013?360 births and 1927 deaths. The unadjusted HRs for England compared with Sweden were 1·66 (95% CI 1·53-1·81) at 2-27 days, 1·59 (1·47-1·71) at 28-364 days, and 1·27 (1·15-1·40) at 1-4 years. At 2-27 days, 77% of the excess risk of death in England was explained by birth characteristics and a further 3% by socioeconomic factors. At 28-364 days, 68% of the excess risk of death in England was explained by birth characteristics and a further 11% by socioeconomic factors. At 1-4 years, the adjusted HR did not indicate a significant difference between countries.
Excess child mortality in England compared with Sweden was largely explained by the unfavourable distribution of birth characteristics in England. Socioeconomic factors contributed to these differences through associations with adverse birth characteristics and increased mortality after 1 month of age. Policies to reduce child mortality in England could have most impact by reducing adverse birth characteristics through improving the health of women before and during pregnancy and reducing socioeconomic disadvantage.
The Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research (through the Medical Research Council, Arthritis Research UK, British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, Chief Scientist Office, Economic and Social Research Council, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, National Institute for Health Research, National Institute for Social Care and Health Research, and the Wellcome Trust).
Notes
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CommentIn: Lancet. 2018 May 19;391(10134):1968-1969 PMID 29731174
PubMed ID
29731173 View in PubMed
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Children's age at parental divorce and depression in early and mid-adulthood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300916
Source
Popul Stud (Camb). 2019 03; 73(1):37-56
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-2019
Author
Øystein Kravdal
Emily Grundy
Author Affiliation
a University of Oslo.
Source
Popul Stud (Camb). 2019 03; 73(1):37-56
Date
03-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Child
Child, Preschool
Depression - etiology
Divorce - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Norway
Parents - psychology
Sex Factors
Siblings - psychology
Stress, Psychological - complications
Young Adult
Abstract
This study aimed to assess whether children's age at their parents' divorce is associated with depression in early and mid-adulthood, as indicated by medication purchase. A sibling comparison method was used to control for unobserved factors shared between siblings. The data were extracted from the Norwegian Population Register and Norwegian Prescription Database and included about 181,000 individuals aged 20-44 who had experienced parental divorce and 636,000 who had not. Controlling for age in 2004, sex, and birth order, children who were aged 15-19 when their parents divorced were 12 per cent less likely to purchase antidepressants as adults in 2004-08 than those experiencing the divorce aged 0-4. The corresponding reduction for those aged 20+ at the time of divorce was 19 per cent. However, the association between age at parental divorce and antidepressant purchases was only evident among women and those whose mothers had low education.
PubMed ID
30632912 View in PubMed
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Early-life mortality risks in opposite-sex and same-sex twins: a Danish cohort study of the twin testosterone transfer hypothesis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289820
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2017 02; 27(2):115-120.e2
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-2017
Author
Linda Juel Ahrenfeldt
Lisbeth Aagaard Larsen
Rune Lindahl-Jacobsen
Axel Skytthe
Jacob V B Hjelmborg
Sören Möller
Kaare Christensen
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, The Danish Twin Registry, Unit of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Biodemography, University of Southern Denmark, Odense C, Denmark; Department of Public Health, Max-Planck Odense Center on the Biodemography of Aging, University of Southern Denmark, Odense C, Denmark. Electronic address: lahrenfeldt@health.sdu.dk.
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2017 02; 27(2):115-120.e2
Date
02-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Cause of Death
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Regression Analysis
Risk assessment
Sex Factors
Testosterone - blood
Twins, Dizygotic - statistics & numerical data
Twins, Monozygotic - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To investigate the twin testosterone transfer (TTT) hypothesis by comparing early-life mortality risks of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twins during the first 15 years of life.
We performed a population-based cohort study to compare mortality in OS and SS twins. We included 68,629 live-born Danish twins from 1973 to 2009 identified through the Danish Twin Registry and performed piecewise stratified Cox regression and log-binomial regression.
Among 1933 deaths, we found significantly higher mortality for twin boys than for twin girls. For both sexes, OS twins had lower mortality than SS twins; the difference persisted for the first year of life for boys and for the first week of life for girls.
Although the mortality risk for OS boys was in the expected direction according to the TTT hypothesis, the results for OS girls pointed in the opposite direction, providing no clear evidence for the TTT hypothesis.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28024904 View in PubMed
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Early Vaccine-type Pneumococcal Acute Otitis Media Does not Predispose to Subsequent Otitis When Compared With Early Acute Otitis Media Due to Other Bacterial Etiology.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299210
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018 06; 37(6):592-594
Publication Type
Clinical Trial, Phase III
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2018
Author
Arto A Palmu
Mika Lahdenkari
Author Affiliation
From the Department of Public Health Solutions, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Tampere, Finland.
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018 06; 37(6):592-594
Date
06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Clinical Trial, Phase III
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Child, Preschool
Disease Susceptibility
Double-Blind Method
Female
Finland
Hepatitis B Vaccines - therapeutic use
Humans
Infant
Male
Nasopharynx - microbiology
Otitis Media - etiology - microbiology - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Infections - etiology - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Vaccines - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Vaccines, Conjugate - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Abstract
Prevention of acute otitis media (AOM), and especially recurrence and biofilm formation, by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines has been hypothesized to be due to prevention of early episodes triggering the vicious cycle. We tested the specific role of vaccine-type pneumococcal AOM in this hypothesis.
In the phase III randomized, double-blind Finnish otitis media Vaccine Trial conducted in 1995-1999, children received pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 7 or hepatitis B vaccine as control at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of age and were followed for AOM. Myringotomy with middle ear fluid aspiration was performed in AOM, and samples were cultured. We compared control-vaccinated children with confirmed vaccine-type or 6A-AOM with those with AOM due to other confirmed etiology within 2-6 months of age (early AOM) and followed for subsequent AOM from 6-24 months of age.
Eight hundred thirty-one children were enrolled in the Finnish otitis media control arm. Before 6 months of age, 34 children experienced vaccine-type-AOM, and 40 children experienced AOM of other bacterial etiology. The subsequent AOM incidences were 1.9 (95% CI, 1.5-2.4) and 2.1 (1.7-2.5) in these subgroups, respectively. However, the subsequent incidences were lower if no bacteria were detected at AOM (1.5, 1.2-1.8) or if there was no early AOM (1.1, 1.1-1.2).
Early vaccine-type AOM was not associated with a higher risk of subsequent AOM compared with AOM due to other confirmed bacterial etiology. These data do not support any specific role of vaccine-type pneumococcus in the hypothesis.
PubMed ID
29200185 View in PubMed
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