Detailed epidemiological studies on occupational skin diseases (OSDs) are scarce.
To analyze risk occupations for OSDs in the Finnish Register of Occupational Diseases (FROD).
We retrieved numbers of OSD cases (excluding skin infections) for different occupations from the FROD in 2005-2016. In the FROD, Finnish ISCO-08-based classification of occupations was used since 2011, and the preceding ISCO-88-based version until 2010. We combined cases from the earlier and the later period using conversion tables provided by Statistics Finland. We included occupations with at least five cases and analyzed them in detail. We calculated incidence rates for OSDs and separately for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in different risk occupations using national labor force statistics. We also studied causes of ACD in these occupations.
Risk occupations with the largest number of OSD cases included farmers, hairdressers, assistant nurses, cooks, cleaners, machinists, and nurses. Occupations with the highest incidences of OSDs comprised spray painters (23.8/10?000 person years), bakers (20.4), and dental technicians (19.0). Epoxy compounds and acrylates were prominent causes of ACD in occupations with the highest incidences of ACD.
Uniform use of International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) would facilitate comparisons of OSD figures in different countries.
The causes of the simultaneous rise of salmonellosis morbidity induced by S. enteritidis among the population of three towns in the Perm region were studied. The study revealed the leading role of eggs and chicken meat as factors contributing to the transfer of this infection to the population of different territories, commonly supplied with the products of one poultry plant. The contamination of eggs and chickens with S. enteritidis occurred at the plant due to Salmonella infection of chickens, parallel with the use of nonbalanced mixed fodder, originally intended for feeding swine. Analysis of the epidemic and epizootic processes of Salmonella infection in this epidemic situation made it possible to reliably establish the factors contributing to the transfer of the infective agent and the site of contamination.
Serum samples from 641 workers of large poultry and meat-packing plants were studied in the passive hemagglutination test with the use of Salmonella complex and serogroup diagnostica. A specific increase in the level of anti-Salmonella antibodies in 60.7% of poultry plant workers and in 9.8% of meat-packing plant workers was established. Among the workers of the poultry plants the most pronounced immune shifts were detected in persons having contacts with sick poultry and pathological material and among the employees of the meat-packing plant, in those who ate raw sausage meat. A high level of antibodies in the professional groups under study was observed as early as in the first year of work at the plant and persisted over the whole period of this work. Under the conditions of constant contamination of the workers of poultry and meat-packing plants with small doses of salmonellae specific immunity to this infection was seemingly induced, which inhibited the development of the manifest forms of infection, but did not prevent the formation of chronic carrier state.
Investigation and evaluation of the population health depending on the environment are realized in two directions. One of them are values characterizing separate indices of the health status. The other direction is based on a study of nosological entities observed in separate systems of the body, evaluation of the functional state of these systems in the whole body and determination of their dependence on environmental factors.
To account for use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) in retrospective noise exposure assessment, adjust noise exposure estimates accordingly, and validate the adjusted estimates.
A previous study in the same working population showed a stronger relation for noise and acute myocardial infarction among those who did not wear HPD. Because accurate noise exposure assessment is complicated by the use of HPD, we previously developed a multilevel model of the likelihood of HPD use for British Columbia (Canada) lumber mill workers. Historical estimates of noise exposure can be adjusted according to models predictions and a reduction in misclassifying workers, exposure is expected.
Work history and exposure information were obtained for 13,147 lumber mill workers followed from 1909 until 1998. Audiometric data for the cohort, including hearing threshold levels at several pure tone frequencies, were obtained from the local regulatory agency for the period from 1978 to 2003. Following the modeling of HPD use, noise estimates were adjusted according to models predictions and attenuation factors based on existing research and standards. Adjusted and unadjusted noise metrics were compared by investigating their ability to predict noise-induced hearing loss.
We showed a 4-fold increase in the noise exposure and hearing loss slope, after adjusting for HPD use, while controlling for gender, age, race, as well as medical and non-occupational confounding variables.
While the relative difference before and after adjustment for use of HPD is considerable, we observed a subtle absolute magnitude of the effect. Using noise-induced hearing loss as a 'gold standard' for testing the assessment of retrospective noise exposure estimates should continue to be investigated.
Subjective health complaints without or with minimal somatic findings (pain, fatigue) are common and frequent reasons for encounter with the general practitioner and for long-term sickness leave and disability. The complaints are often attributed to the stressors of modern life. Is this true? We interviewed 120 Aborigine Mangyans (native population, M age = 33.5 years, 72.5% women) living under primitive conditions in the jungle of Mindoro, an island in the Philippines, and 101 persons living in a small coastal town on the same island (coastal population, M age = 33.8 years, 60.4% women). Both groups had more musculoskeletal complaints, fatigue, mood changes, and gastrointestinal complaints than a representative sample from the Norwegian population (N = 1,243). Our common subjective health complaints, therefore, are not specific for industrialized societies.
The growth of maritime oil transportation in the Gulf of Finland (GoF), North-Eastern Baltic Sea, increases environmental risks by increasing the probability of oil accidents. By integrating the work of a multidisciplinary research team and information from several sources, we have developed a probabilistic risk assessment application that considers the likely future development of maritime traffic and oil transportation in the area and the resulting risk of environmental pollution. This metamodel is used to compare the effects of two preventative management actions on the tanker collision probabilities and the consequent risk. The resulting risk is evaluated from four different perspectives. Bayesian networks enable large amounts of information about causalities to be integrated and utilized in probabilistic inference. Compared with the baseline period of 2007-2008, the worst-case scenario is that the risk level increases 4-fold by the year 2015. The management measures are evaluated and found to decrease the risk by 4-13%, but the utility gained by their joint implementation would be less than the sum of their independent effects. In addition to the results concerning the varying risk levels, the application provides interesting information about the relationships between the different elements of the system.
The relationship between breast cancer risk and residential proximity to paper mills, pulp mills, petroleum refineries, steel mills, thermal power plants, alum smelters, nickel smelters, lead smelters, copper smelters, and zinc smelters was assessed.
We conducted a population-based case-control study of 2343 cases with breast cancer and 2467 controls using residential proximity at some time between 1960 and 5 years before the completion of questionnaire in Canada.
Adjusted odds ratios were statistically significantly increased for residing near steel mills (0.8 to 3.2 km) and thermal power plants (
BACKGROUND: Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is common in bakery workers. The relation between bronchial responsiveness measured with a tidal breathing method and smoking, airway symptoms, IgE-sensitization, nasal indices of inflammation and flour dust exposure have been studied with bronchial responsiveness expressed as a continuous outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bakery workers (n = 197) were subjected to interviews, questionnaires, allergy tests, workplace dust measurements and bronchial metacholine provocation. Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and alpha(2)-macroglobulin were measured in nasal lavage. Bronchial responsiveness was expressed as slope(conc), a measurement based on regressing the per cent reduction in FEV(1) at each provocation step. RESULTS: BHR expressed as slope(conc) was associated with smoking (P = 0.009), asthma symptoms at work (P = 0.001), and occupational IgE sensitization (P = 0.048). After adjusting for baseline lung function the association between BHR and IgE sensitization was no longer present. We demonstrated an association between nasal ECP and BHR (slope(conc)
Previously, the mortality was reported in a cohort of male workers at an Ontario chemical plant.
To expand the cohort and to investigate the mortality and cancer incidence risk among chemical manufacturing sites.
We followed 5277 men and 1301 women from 1950 to 1999.
Employees experienced lower mortality and cancer incidence rates than the general population for several major causes of death, including heart disease, respiratory cancer and many other cancers. There were no cases of angiosarcoma of the liver. We observed a lower mortality rate of prostate cancer [standardized mortality ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43-1.32], but a higher incidence rate of prostate cancer [standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.22, 95% CI 1.00-1.48]. Among the Sarnia employees, the incidence of pleural neoplasms was increased (5 observed versus 1.48 expected, SIR = 3.37, 95% CI 1.09-7.86). These cancers were included in the 12 deaths with malignant mesothelioma at Sarnia.
Consistent with the earlier report, lower mortality rates were observed for the major classifications of disease and malignant neoplasms. The higher incidence rates of prostate cancer are not readily explainable but may reflect increased screening among current employees and recent retirees. Past asbestos exposure prior to 1980 is probably a contributor to the deaths due to malignant mesothelioma but is not reflected in lung cancer mortality. We find little indication of any other increased rates of mortality or cancer within the overall workforce of these chemical plants.