In article are given substantiation for modification of contemporary list of biologically active substances with undesirable toxicological qualities (namely included in this list of menthofuran, methyleugenol (4-Allyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene), teucrin A, capsaicin, estragol1 (-Allyl-4-methoxybenzene) and excluded from the list of quinine, santonin, berberin) and developing the list of plants--natural sources of flavourings substances. The new criteria of European Union for including into the relevant for using in/on foodstuff list of flavouring substances, which was published in the Comission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 872/2012 concerning flavourings, listed the 11 flavouring substances for which have been established indexes of foodstuffs in manufacturing, which there are could using and criteria of their safety (caffeine, theobromine, neohesperidin dihydrocalcone, rebaudioside A, d-camphor, three quinine salts (FL 14.011, FL 14.152 and FL 14.155), glycyrrhizic acid and its ammoniated form, ammonium chloride, discussed the possibility of using R- and S-isomers of flavouring substances and L- and D-forms of aminoacids for preparing of flavours, are discussed. Improving of the system of safety using of flavourings in Russian Federation, harmonized with demands of European Union and FAQ/WHO, are, at first, connected with the necessity of reevaluation of the list flavouring substances, which could be use in/on foodstuff, developing of list of the plants--natural sources of flavourings substances and preparations and regulations of using flavourings preparations which can include biologically active substances.
OBJECTIVE: To study changes in adolescent snus use from 1981 to 2003, the effects of the total snus sales ban (1995) and snus acquisition. DESIGN: Biennial postal surveys in 1981-2003. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Entire Finland; 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-olds (n = 73,946; 3105-8390 per year). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Snus use (experimental, daily/occasionally), snus acquisition (2001, 2003). RESULTS: Snus experimentation grew in popularity before the total sales ban in 16- and 18-year-old boys and after the ban in all age and sex groups. A decrease was seen between 2001 and 2003, except for 18-year-old boys. Daily/occasional use mainly followed the same pattern in boys while in girls the daily/occasional use was rare and no significant changes were observed. In 2003, boys experimented with snus more often than girls (12-year-olds 1% v 0%, 14-year-olds 9% v 4%, 16-year-olds 30% v 12%, 18-year-olds 44% v 18%). Hardly any girls used snus daily/occasionally, but 1% of 14-year-old boys, 7% of 16-year-olds, and 9% of 18-year-olds did. Of daily/occasional users, 84% acquired snus from friends or acquaintances, 55% from tourist trips to neighbouring countries (Estonia, Sweden), and 7% through sport teams; 24% obtained it from under-the-counter sources. For experimenters, the corresponding figures were 79%, 18%, 0.3%, and 5%. CONCLUSIONS: The total sales ban did not stop snus use; instead, the increase continued after the ban. Friends who travel to neighbouring countries act as go-betweens reselling snus. Snus is used even by the youngest adolescents, thus contributing to the nicotine dependence process.
To identify and to discuss factors influencing illegal merchant sales of tobacco to underage people in Ontario, Canada.
Results were obtained through random retail compliance checks of tobacco merchants. A multivariate analysis specified the relationship between selected independent variables and the willingness of tobacco merchants to sell to minors. The selected independent variables included retail operation type, community population size, the presence of tobacco production, signage, sex and age of volunteers, smoking prevalence rates, and enforcement rates.
A random, stratified sample of 438 tobacco retailers in 186 communities in Ontario.
Willingness of merchants to sell tobacco to minors.
Older youths and girls were more likely to be sold tobacco products. Purchase attempts carried out in tobacco-producing regions were also statistically related to illegal sales.
Policy efforts to control youth access to tobacco in Canada may need to invoke legislation requiring merchants to request proper identification from customers who appear to be under the age of 25, and who seek to purchase tobacco products. Further attention could also be directed at tobacco control policies and enforcement strategies that need to consider the unique challenges faced by jurisdictions where the tobacco industry is a powerful presence.
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