The Toronto Adolescent Longitudinal Study was launched in 1977 to examine personality development in a non-clinical sample of children from ages ten through 19 over an eight year period. Following a description of their conceptualized model of personality and of the nature of the study, the authors summarize their findings which suggest new perspectives in three areas of adolescent personality development: 1) the subphases of adolescence, 2) the routes of passage through which adolescents proceed, and 3) adolescent turmoil.
This study was designed to explain changes in work ability through occupational and life-style factors.
Work ability was measured by an index describing workers' health resources in regard to their work demands. The work factors mainly included physical and mental demands, social organization and the physical work environment. The life-style factors covered smoking, alcohol consumption, and leisure-time physical exercise. The first questionnaire study was done in 1981 and it was repeated in 1992. The subjects (N = 818) were workers in the 44- to 51-year-old age group in the beginning of the study who were active during the entire follow-up. The improvement and, correspondingly, the decline in work ability were analyzed by logistic regression models.
Both the improvement and the decline in work ability were associated more strongly with changes in work and life-style during the follow-up than with their initial variation. The model for improved work ability included improvement of the supervisor's attitude, decreased repetitive movements at work, and increased amount of vigorous leisure-time physical exercise. Deterioration in work ability was explained by a model which included a decrease in recognition and esteem at work, decrease in workroom conditions, increase in standing at work, and decrease in vigorous leisure-time physical exercise.
Social relations at work can promote or impair the work ability of elderly workers. Although the work ability of elderly workers generally declined with aging, both older and younger workers were also able to improve their work ability.
Liveborn anencephalic infants cannot be used legally as sources for vital organs in the United States and Canada. Understandably, knowledgeable physicians and bioethicists are divided over the ethics of such use and hold various views on whether the legal status of anencephalic newborns should ever be changed. Even if anencephalic newborns could be utilized as organ sources, at best a few hundred infants needing transplant organs would be saved each year. Primarily, this is because the number of anencephalic newborns is likely to diminish due to prenatal diagnosis resulting in abortions. However, the case of anencephalic infants and their treatment is paradigmatic in raising questions far beyond mere organ transplantation.... This analytical report is given against the backdrop of a burgeoning medical technology which can sustain human life far beyond that generally regarded as a meaningful, functional life. The report has three sections: first, a description of the approaches to the use of anencephalic infants in North America over the last five years; second, a summary of the results of a survey of informed clinicians and ethicists; and third, an indication of the leading ethical issues raised by human individuals at the border of life.
Clinically significant anxiety symptoms are prevalent among the elderly, yet knowledge about the longitudinal course of anxiety symptoms in later life remains scarce. The goals of this study were to (a) characterize age trajectories of state anxiety symptoms in the second half of life, and (b) estimate genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in the age trajectory of state anxiety. This study was based on data from 1,482 participants in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging who were aged 50 and older at their first occasion (512 complete twin pairs, 458 singletons) and had up to 6 measurement occasions spanning 11 years. Consistent with life span developmental theories of age-related emotional change, anxiety symptom levels declined during the transition from midlife to the mid-60s, followed by a mild increase that gradually plateaued in the 80s. There were substantial individual differences in the age trajectory of anxiety. After accounting for effects of sex, cohort, mode of testing, and proximity to death, this longitudinal variation was partitioned into biometric sources. Nonshared environmental variance was highest in the late 60s and declined thereafter, whereas genetic variance increased at an accelerated pace from approximately age 60 onward. There was no evidence for effects of rearing or other shared environment on anxiety symptoms in later life. These findings highlight how the etiology of anxiety symptoms changes from midlife to old age.
Cites: Twin Res Hum Genet. 2007 Jun;10(3):423-3317564500
Cites: Acta Genet Med Gemellol (Roma). 1991;40(1):7-201950353