American Indian and Alaska Native Programs, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Nighthorse Campbell Native Health Building, P.O. Box 6508, Mailstop F800, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: Anthropologists with an interest in American Indian alcohol use have long held that how native people drink has been conditioned by aspects of the social organization of their societies prior to the disruptive influences of European colonialism. Our goal in this article was to explicitly test the importance of these factors in four contemporary American Indian cultural groups. METHOD: Using data on adolescent alcohol use drawn from the first full wave of the longitudinal Voices of Indian Teens Project (N = 1,651, 51% female), we tested whether patterns of quantity-frequency of alcohol use and the negative consequences of alcohol use predicted by social organzational variables were found among contemporary adolescents and, subsequently, whether these differences persisted when other, more proximal, variables were included. RESULTS: Cultural differences appeared to account for a small percentage of the variance in both quantity-frequency of alcohol use and negative consequences in the initial steps of our analyses, but the pattern in these data was not consistent with the predictions of existing theories regarding aboriginal social organization. Moreover, these cultural differences were no longer significant in the final step of our analyses, suggesting that the cultural differences that did exist were better explained by other factors, at least among these adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Although these analyses did not indicate that culture was irrelevant in understanding adolescent alcohol use in American Indian communities, classic formulations of these effects were of limited utility in understanding the experiences of contemporary American Indian adolescents.
Urbanization among Indigenous peoples is growing globally. This has implications for the assertion of Indigenous rights in urban areas, as rights are largely tied to land bases that generally lie outside of urban areas. Through their impacts on the broader social determinants of health, the links between Indigenous rights and urbanization may be related to health. Focusing on a Canadian example, this study explores relationships between Indigenous rights and urbanization, and the ways in which they are implicated in the health of urban Indigenous peoples living in Toronto, Canada. In-depth interviews focused on conceptions of and access to Aboriginal rights in the city, and perceived links with health, were conduced with 36 Aboriginal people who had moved to Toronto from a rural/reserve area. Participants conceived of Aboriginal rights largely as the rights to specific services/benefits and to respect for Aboriginal cultures/identities. There was a widespread perception among participants that these rights are not respected in Canada, and that this is heightened when living in an urban area. Disrespect for Aboriginal rights was perceived to negatively impact health by way of social determinants of health (e.g., psychosocial health impacts of discrimination experienced in Toronto). The paper discusses the results in the context of policy implications and future areas of research.
Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation, Lyle S Hallman Institute, Room 1717A, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3G1. firstname.lastname@example.org
To conduct an exploratory, comparative study of the utilisation and effectiveness of tobacco cessation quitlines among aboriginal and non-aboriginal Canadian smokers.
Population based quitlines that provide free cessation information, advice and counselling to Canadian smokers.
First time quitline callers, age 18 years of age and over, who called the quitline between August 2001 and December 2005 and who completed the evaluation and provided data on their ethnic status (n = 7082).
Demographic characteristics and tobacco behaviours of participants at intake and follow-up; reasons for calling; actions taken toward quitting, and 6-month follow-up quit rates.
7% of evaluation participants in the time period reported aboriginal origins. Aboriginal participants were younger than non-aboriginals but had similar smoking status and level of addiction at intake. Concern about future health and current health problems were the most common reasons aboriginal participants called. Six months after intake aboriginals and non-aboriginals had taken similar actions with 57% making a 24-hour quit attempt. Quit rates were higher for aboriginals than non-aboriginals, particularly for men. The 6-month prolonged abstinence rate for aboriginal men was 16.7% compared with 7.2% for aboriginal women and 9.4% and 8.3% for non-aboriginal men and women, respectively.
This exploratory analysis showed that even without targeted promotion, aboriginal smokers do call Canadian quitlines, primarily for health related reasons. We also showed that the quitlines are effective at helping them to quit. As a population focused intervention, quitlines can reach a large proportion of smokers in a cost efficient manner. In aboriginal communities where smoking rates exceed 50% and multiple health risks and chronic diseases already exist, eliminating non-ceremonial tobacco use must be a priority. Our results, although exploratory, suggest quitlines can be an effective addition to aboriginal tobacco cessation strategies.
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2002 Oct 3;347(14):1087-9312362011
Child abuse and neglect is of growing concern in many American Indian and Alaska Native communities. The present paper represents one attempt to add to the existing, albeit sparse, knowledge base concerning the abuse and neglect of American Indian children. It reports the results of a survey of federal human service providers in which the subject of child abuse and neglect in Indian communities figured prominently. The study took place at several locations in Arizona and New Mexico. Data were obtained using the key-informant method from 55 federal service providers who identified 1,155 children, from birth to 21 years for inclusion in the survey. Children were included if they were currently in mental health treatment, if they were in need of mental health treatment, or if they were known to have been abused or neglected. Particular emphasis was given in the data collection to abuse- and neglect-related factors such as living arrangements, familial disruption, psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse, and school adjustment. The patterns evident in this sample closely resemble those trends identified among abused and/or neglected children in the general population. Sixty-seven percent of the sample was described as neglected or abused. The presence of abuse and/or neglect was strongly related to severe levels of chaos in the family. Children who were described as both abused and neglected had more psychiatric symptoms, greater frequency of having run away or been expelled, and greater frequency of drug use.
This study investigated suicides by people aged ten to 19 in Newfoundland and Labrador from 1977 to 1988. It is the first study of suicide in the province to use the records of death from all eight hospital pathology departments in the province and from the office of the Chief Forensic Pathologist. Cases were selected for the study using standardized criteria, independent of the manner of death recorded on the death certificate. A suicide rate of 4.37 per 100,000 was found. This rate and the age- and sex-specific suicide rates are lower than the official figures for Canada but higher than those reported in earlier Newfoundland studies. The rate for males was nearly five times the female rate, and the rate for people aged 15 to 19 was nearly six times that of people aged ten to 14. Suicide rates for Labrador were higher than for the island portion of the province for both Native and for non Native adolescents. Extremely high rates of suicide were found only among the Native population living in Northern Labrador, while none were recorded for Native people elsewhere. Firearms accounted for 54% and hanging for 33% of all suicides. Thirty percent of suicides occurred on a Saturday. Only 36 of the 63 deaths included in this study were designated as suicide on death certificates. The higher rate of under-reporting of suicide than in other jurisdictions suggests that official rates may not be useful for comparisons. The reasons for the high rate of under-reporting are discussed.
Suicide rates in Alaska Native elders are studied to further explore cultural factors in elderly suicide. Data for the 1960s and 1970s are reviewed, and new data on Alaska Native suicide rates are presented for the 10-year period of 1985 through 1994. In many areas throughout the world, suicide rates are the highest for the elderly. During the Alaska "oil boom," suicide rates more than tripled for the general population but decreased to zero for Alaska Native elders. Cultural teachings from the society's elders were more important during this time of culture upheaval. During the study period, the cultural changes dissipated, and suicide rates for Alaska Native elders, although lower than those of White Alaskans, increased. This provides further evidence that suicide rates for elders can be influenced by social factors--both to raise to lower rates.
Quantitative alcohol interviews conducted as part of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Native American Supplement revealed very high rates of alcohol use among American Indian and Alaska Native active crack and injection drug users (IDUs). Of 147 respondents who completed the alcohol questionnaire, 100& percent had drunk alcohol within the past month, almost 42& percent reported that they drank every day, and 50& percent drank until they were drunk one-half of the time or more. Injection drug users (IDUs) demonstrated the highest frequency and quantity of alcohol use in the past 30 days. A significant positive association was also found between crack and alcohol use in the past 48 hours (c(2)=5.30, p
Although alcohol use was not part of traditional First Nation (FN) life, alcohol misuse currently poses a significant public health problem. There is a dearth of research efforts to understand both alcohol misuse and efforts to resolve these problems. The primary aims of this study were to 1) present descriptive data on alcohol use in FN adults living on one reserve in Eastern Canada; and 2) explore correlates of help seeking intentions and past behaviors.
We administered questionnaires to 211 FN people (96 men; 113 women; 2 unknown).
Nearly two-thirds of our sample were current drinkers (N=150). Of those, 29% endorsed they needed help with their drinking, and half reported that they would probably try to cut down or stop drinking in the next year. Multiple regression analyses suggested that drinking was positively associated with a greater perceived need for help with drinking (ß=.40, p=
A community survey and subsequent clinical assessment of 192 Cree aged 65 years and over registered in two Reserves in Northern Manitoba identified only one case of probable Alzheimer's disease among eight cases of dementia, giving a prevalence of 0.5% for Alzheimer's disease and 4.2% for all dementias. This contrasted with an age-adjusted prevalence of 3.5% for Alzheimer's disease and 4.2% for all dementias in an age-stratified sample of 241 English-speaking residents of Winnipeg. Although it was not so for all dementias, the difference between the groups for prevalence of Alzheimer's disease was highly significant (p