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Access and benefits sharing of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in northern Canada: understanding the legal environment and creating effective research agreements

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284320
Source
Pages 912-920 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):912-920
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
  1 document  
Author
Geary J1, Jardine CG, Guebert J, Bubela T.
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
Source
Pages 912-920 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):912-920
Date
2013
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Access to Information/legislation & jurisprudence
Biomedical Research/legislation & jurisprudence
Biomedical Research/organization & administration
Canada
Community-Institutional Relations/legislation & jurisprudence
Culture
Financing, Government
Genetics, Medical/legislation & jurisprudence
Genetics, Medical/organization & administration
Health Policy
Humans
Indians, North American/ethnology
Indians, North American/genetics
Indians, North American/legislation & jurisprudence
Documents
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Accuracy of the Broselow tape in estimating the weight of First Nations children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130926
Source
Can J Rural Med. 2011;16(4):121-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Stephanie Bourdeau
Julie Copeland
W Ken Milne
Author Affiliation
Department of Family Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Source
Can J Rural Med. 2011;16(4):121-5
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Height
Body Weight
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Humans
Indians, North American - ethnology
Infant
Male
Obesity - epidemiology - ethnology
Ontario - epidemiology - ethnology
Pediatrics - instrumentation
Reproducibility of Results
Retrospective Studies
Abstract
During resuscitation, the Broselow tape (BT) is the standard method of estimating pediatric weight based on body length. The First Nations population has a higher prevalence of obesity and experiences more injury than the non-First Nations population. The prevalence of obesity has raised the concern that the BT may not accurately estimate weight in this population. The purpose of this study was to validate the BT in 8 First Nations communities.
We performed a search of the electronic medical records of 2 community health centres that serve 8 local First Nations communities. We searched for the most recent clinic visit during which height and weight had been recorded in the records of patients less than 10 years of age with a postal code indicating residence in a First Nations community. The patients' actual weight was compared with their BT weight estimates using the Bland-Altman method. The Spearman coefficient of rank and percentage error was also calculated.
A total of 243 children were included in the study (119 girls, 124 boys). The mean age was 33.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 29.7 to 36.9), mean height was 91.8 cm (95% CI 89.0 to 94.6), mean weight was 16.2 kg (95% CI 15.0 to 17.3)and mean BT weight was 14.0 kg (95% CI 13.1 to 14.8). The Bland-Altman percent difference was 11.9% (95% CI -17.3% to 41.1%). The Spearman coefficient of rank correlation was 0.963 (p
PubMed ID
21955338 View in PubMed
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Acquired capability for suicide among individuals with American Indian/Alaska Native backgrounds within the military.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286165
Source
Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res. 2016;23(4):1-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Bruno Chiurliza
Matthew S Michaels
Thomas E Joiner
Source
Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res. 2016;23(4):1-15
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alaska Natives - ethnology
Female
Humans
Indians, North American - ethnology
Male
Middle Aged
Military Personnel - psychology
Suicide - ethnology
Young Adult
Abstract
The present study observes a military sample across race to better understand suicide risk among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) individuals utilizing the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide. In a sample of 3,387 Army recruiters, multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare the means across race on acquired capability and pain tolerance. AI/AN individuals demonstrated higher levels of acquired capability for suicide (p = .056) and pain tolerance (p = .028). These findings indicate that acquired capability and pain tolerance are key elements involved in suicide risk among AI/AN individuals within the military.
PubMed ID
27536895 View in PubMed
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Age distribution of infection and hospitalization among Canadian First Nations populations during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118146
Source
Am J Public Health. 2013 Feb;103(2):e39-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
Luiz C Mostaço-Guidolin
Sherry M J Towers
David L Buckeridge
Seyed M Moghadas
Author Affiliation
Centre for Disease Modelling, York Institute for Health Research, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Am J Public Health. 2013 Feb;103(2):e39-44
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Epidemiological Monitoring
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Indians, North American - ethnology
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Influenza, Human - ethnology
Manitoba - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Pandemics - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
We estimated age-standardized ratios of infection and hospitalization among Canadian First Nations (FN) populations and compared their distributions with those estimated for non-FN populations in Manitoba, Canada.
For the spring and fall 2009 waves of the H1N1 pandemic, we obtained daily numbers of laboratory-confirmed and hospitalized cases of H1N1 infection, stratified by 5-year age groups and FN status. We calculated age-standardized ratios with confidence intervals for each wave and compared ratios between age groups in each ethnic group and between the 2 waves for FN and non-FN populations.
Incidence and hospitalization ratios in all FN age groups during the first wave were significantly higher than those in non-FN age groups (P
PubMed ID
23237152 View in PubMed
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Ah-ayitaw isi e-ki-kiskeyihtahkik maskihkiy. They knew both sides of medicine: Cree tales of curing and cursing told by Alice Ahenakew. [Review of: Ahenakew, A. Ah-ayitaw isi e-ki-kiskeyihtahkik maskihkiy. They knew both sides of medicine: Cree tales of curing and cursing told by Alice Ahenakew. Winnipeg: U. of Manitoba Pr., 2000].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168606
Source
Can Hist Rev. 2002;83(3):432-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002

Alcohol and other contextual factors of suicide in four Aboriginal communities of Quebec, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147204
Source
Crisis. 2009;30(4):215-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Arlene Laliberté
Michel Tousignant
Author Affiliation
Centre for Research and Intervention on Suicide and Euthanasia, Department of Psychology, University of Quebec at Montreal, Canada. arlene_laliberte@health.qld.gov.au
Source
Crisis. 2009;30(4):215-21
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Alcoholic Intoxication - complications - ethnology
Cluster analysis
Family - ethnology
Female
Humans
Indians, North American - ethnology - statistics & numerical data
Life Change Events
Male
Middle Aged
Quebec - epidemiology
Residence Characteristics
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance-Related Disorders - complications - ethnology
Suicide - ethnology - statistics & numerical data
Unemployment
Abstract
Aboriginal populations worldwide face increasing rates of suicide. Despite this recurring observation, little research has emerged from Aboriginal settings.
This paper describes the psychosocial and behavioral characteristics of 30 consecutive adult suicides from four First-Nations communities in Quebec, Canada.
Psychological autopsies guided by the LEDS with family members of the deceased.
Suicide among this group is overrepresented by young single men. Alcohol intoxication at the time of death was reported for 22 cases in association with rapid acting out after the precipitating event for 20. All but two cases had a history of alcohol abuse, and drug use was also present in 23 cases. In 16 cases there had been a previous suicide attempt, 14 of which occurred during the previous year. The main socio-demographic characteristics of the communities were overcrowded living arrangements and no job status (90%). Seven cases were incarcerated or locked up at the time of death. Clustering of suicide was observed within seven nuclear families including 16 suicides.
This study shows that Aboriginal suicide is the result of a complex interweaving of individual, familial, and socio-historical variables. The impact of contemporary social stressors on individual well-being must be addressed to prevent suicide in this community.
PubMed ID
19933068 View in PubMed
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Alcohol misuse and associations with childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban two-spirit American Indian and Alaska Native people.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264468
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014;11(10):10461-79
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Nicole P Yuan
Bonnie M Duran
Karina L Walters
Cynthia R Pearson
Tessa A Evans-Campbell
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014;11(10):10461-79
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adoption - ethnology - psychology
Adult
Alaska - ethnology
Alcoholism - epidemiology - ethnology
Bisexuality - psychology
Child
Child Abuse - ethnology
Female
Foster Home Care - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Homosexuality, Female - psychology
Humans
Indians, North American - ethnology
Male
United States - ethnology
Abstract
This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit) American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcohol dependence. The most common types of childhood maltreatment were physical abuse among male drinkers (62.7%) and emotional abuse (71.8%) among female drinkers. Men and women reported high percentages of out-of-home placement (39% and 47%, respectively). Logistic multiple regressions found that for male drinkers boarding school attendance and foster care placement were significant predictors of past-year alcohol dependence. For female drinkers, being adopted was significantly associated with a decreased risk of past-year drinking binge or spree. Dose-response relationships, using number of childhood exposures as a predictor, were not significant. The results highlight the need for alcohol and violence prevention and intervention strategies among urban two-spirit individuals.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25317980 View in PubMed
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Alcohol Policies and Alcoholic Cirrhosis Mortality in the United States.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276628
Source
Prev Chronic Dis. 2015;12:E177
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Scott E Hadland
Ziming Xuan
Jason G Blanchette
Timothy C Heeren
Monica H Swahn
Timothy S Naimi
Source
Prev Chronic Dis. 2015;12:E177
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - legislation & jurisprudence
Binge Drinking - epidemiology - legislation & jurisprudence
Cluster analysis
Delphi Technique
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Policy
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Indians, North American - ethnology
Inuits - ethnology
Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic - epidemiology - mortality
Male
Poisson Distribution
Regression Analysis
Sex Factors
State Government
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Stronger alcohol policies predict decreased alcohol consumption and binge drinking in the United States. We examined the relationship between the strength of states' alcohol policies and alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates.
We used the Alcohol Policy Scale (APS), a validated assessment of policies of the 50 US states and Washington DC, to quantify the efficacy and implementation of 29 policies. State APS scores (theoretical range, 0-100) for each year from 1999 through 2008 were compared with age-adjusted alcoholic cirrhosis death rates that occurred 3 years later. We used Poisson regression accounting for state-level clustering and adjusting for race/ethnicity, college education, insurance status, household income, religiosity, policing rates, and urbanization.
Age-adjusted alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates varied significantly across states; they were highest among males, among residents in states in the West census region, and in states with a high proportion of American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Higher APS scores were associated with lower mortality rates among females (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.91 per 10-point increase in APS score; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.84-0.99) but not among males (adjusted IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.90-1.04). Among non-AI/AN decedents, higher APS scores were also associated with lower alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates among both sexes combined (adjusted IRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82-0.97). Policies were more strongly associated with lower mortality rates among those living in the Northeast and West census regions than in other regions.
Stronger alcohol policy environments are associated with lower alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates. Future studies should identify underlying reasons for racial/ethnic and regional differences in this relationship.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26469950 View in PubMed
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American Indian/Alaska Native Elders: A Growing Demographic that Is Changing How We View Aging.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature288189
Source
J Gerontol Soc Work. 2016 May-Jun;59(4):277-280
Publication Type
Article
Author
Jordan P Lewis
Source
J Gerontol Soc Work. 2016 May-Jun;59(4):277-280
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - ethnology
Alaska Natives - ethnology - psychology
Cultural Characteristics
Humans
Indians, North American - ethnology - psychology
Qualitative Research
Social Work - trends
United States - ethnology
Abstract
Today, AIAN Elders are more actively engaged in their families and communities, encouraging the development of intergenerational programs, language and cultural revitalization, being stewards in research conducted in their communities, as well passing on their knowledge and experiences on how to live as healthy Native people. Elders have traditionally been quiet and observant of their environment, but the current and future cohorts of Elders are advocates, leaders, and culture bearers for their families and communities and they are now in positions of leadership. Western society acknowledges the value of traditional knowledge and AIAN Elders are viewed as exemplars of healthy aging and their lessons and experiences can be attributed to our own lives. This commentary highlights the paradigm shift in how society views older adults, specifically AIAN Elders and their role in health and wellbeing.
PubMed ID
27267308 View in PubMed
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American Indian and Alaska Native mental health: diverse perspectives on enduring disparities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129026
Source
Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2012;8:131-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Joseph P Gone
Joseph E Trimble
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. jgone@umich.edu
Source
Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2012;8:131-60
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alaska
Cultural Diversity
Health services needs and demand
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Indians, North American - ethnology
Inuits - ethnology
Mental Disorders - ethnology
Mental Health - ethnology
Suicide - ethnology
United States
United States Indian Health Service
Violence - ethnology
Abstract
As descendants of the indigenous peoples of the United States, American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) have experienced a resurgence in population and prospects since the beginning of the twentieth century. Today, tribally affiliated individuals number over two million, distributed across 565 federally recognized tribal communities and countless metropolitan and nonreservation rural areas. Although relatively little evidence is available, the existing data suggest that AI/AN adults and youth suffer a disproportionate burden of mental health problems compared with other Americans. Specifically, clear disparities have emerged for AI/AN substance abuse, posttraumatic stress, violence, and suicide. The rapid expansion of mental health services to AI/AN communities has, however, frequently preceded careful consideration of a variety of questions about critical components of such care, such as the service delivery structure itself, clinical treatment processes, and preventive and rehabilitative program evaluation. As a consequence, the mental health needs of these communities have easily outpaced and overwhelmed the federally funded agency designed to serve these populations, with the Indian Health Service remaining chronically understaffed and underfunded such that elimination of AI/AN mental health disparities is only a distant dream. Although research published during the past decade has substantially improved knowledge about AI/AN mental health problems, far fewer investigations have explored treatment efficacy and outcomes among these culturally diverse peoples. In addition to routine calls for greater clinical and research resources, however, AI/AN community members themselves are increasingly advocating for culturally alternative approaches and opportunities to address their mental health needs on their own terms.
PubMed ID
22149479 View in PubMed
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145 records – page 1 of 15.