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162 records – page 1 of 17.

Absence of association between genetic variation in the LIPC gene promoter and plasma lipoproteins in three Canadian populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5558
Source
Atherosclerosis. 1999 Sep;146(1):153-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1999
Author
R A Hegele
S B Harris
J H Brunt
T K Young
A J Hanley
B. Zinman
P W Connelly
Author Affiliation
Blackburn Cardiovascular Genetics Laboratory, Robarts Research Institute, Department of Medicine, London, Ont., Canada. robert.hegele@rri.on.ca
Source
Atherosclerosis. 1999 Sep;146(1):153-60
Date
Sep-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Analysis of Variance
Arteriosclerosis - genetics
Canada
Female
Gene Frequency
Humans
Indians, North American - genetics
Lipase - blood - genetics
Lipoproteins, HDL Cholesterol - blood
Liver - enzymology
Male
Middle Aged
Phenotype
Population Surveillance
Promoter Regions (Genetics)
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Sensitivity and specificity
Trans-Activation (Genetics)
Variation (Genetics)
Abstract
The promoter sequence variant -480T in the hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) has been shown to be significantly associated with low post-heparin hepatic lipase activity. Some studies have also found that the -480T variant is associated with elevation in plasma HDL cholesterol. We tested for associations of LIPC -480T with plasma lipoprotein traits in samples taken from three distinct Canadian populations: 657 Alberta Hutterites, 328 Ontario Oji-Cree and 210 Keewatin Inuit. Plasma HL activity was not available for analyses. The LIPC -480T allele frequencies in these three groups, respectively, were 0.219, 0.527 and 0.383, and the prevalence of LIPC -480T/T homozygotes was, respectively, 0.042, 0.274 and 0.167. No significant association was found between LIPC -480T and plasma HDL cholesterol or apolipoprotein AI concentration, after adjusting for covariates including gender and body mass index. There was no consistent relationship between the population mean plasma HDL cholesterol concentration and the population LIPC -480T frequency. Our findings are consistent with the idea that the common promoter variation in LIPC, which has been reported to be associated with variation in post heparin HL activity and HDL triglyceride concentration, is not always associated with variation in plasma HDL cholesterol concentration, possibly due to yet unspecified environmental or genetic factors.
PubMed ID
10487498 View in PubMed
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Absence of the atypical mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) isozyme in Saskatchewan Cree Indians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature221601
Source
Hum Hered. 1993 Mar-Apr;43(2):116-20
Publication Type
Article
Author
L E Dyck
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.
Source
Hum Hered. 1993 Mar-Apr;43(2):116-20
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - physiopathology
Aldehyde Dehydrogenase - genetics
Asia - ethnology
Asian Continental Ancestry Group - genetics
European Continental Ancestry Group - genetics
Flushing - etiology
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
Gene Frequency
Hair - enzymology
Humans
Indians, North American - genetics
Isoelectric Focusing
Isoenzymes - genetics
Mitochondria - enzymology
Phenotype
Questionnaires
Saskatchewan
Skin Tests
Abstract
Three methods were employed to assess whether human volunteers (Caucasian, Asian or Cree Indian) possessed the typical or atypical mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) isozyme. These methods were: (1) questioning individuals about facial flushing responses following alcohol consumption; (2) application of the ethanol skin patch test, and (3) direct analysis using isoelectric focusing and activity staining of ALDH activity in hair root samples. The results from the three methods were in good agreement and revealed that only the typical ALDH2 isozyme was expressed in Saskatchewan Cree Indians. In agreement with previous reports, the typical ALDH2 was expressed in the Caucasian group of subjects, while both the typical and atypical forms were expressed in the Asian subjects.
PubMed ID
8359813 View in PubMed
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Access and benefits sharing of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in northern Canada: understanding the legal environment and creating effective research agreements

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284320
Source
Pages 912-920 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):912-920
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
  1 document  
Author
Geary J1, Jardine CG, Guebert J, Bubela T.
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
Source
Pages 912-920 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):912-920
Date
2013
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Access to Information/legislation & jurisprudence
Biomedical Research/legislation & jurisprudence
Biomedical Research/organization & administration
Canada
Community-Institutional Relations/legislation & jurisprudence
Culture
Financing, Government
Genetics, Medical/legislation & jurisprudence
Genetics, Medical/organization & administration
Health Policy
Humans
Indians, North American/ethnology
Indians, North American/genetics
Indians, North American/legislation & jurisprudence
Documents
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ADH and ALDH polymorphisms among Alaska Natives entering treatment for alcoholism.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10681
Source
Alaska Med. 1999 Jan-Mar;41(1):9-12, 23
Publication Type
Article
Author
B. Segal
Author Affiliation
Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, University of Alaska Anchorage 99508, USA.
Source
Alaska Med. 1999 Jan-Mar;41(1):9-12, 23
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alaska
Alcohol Dehydrogenase - genetics
Alcoholism - genetics
Aldehyde Dehydrogenase - genetics
Alleles
Comparative Study
Continental Population Groups - genetics
Ethanol - metabolism
Female
Genotype
Humans
Indians, North American - genetics
Inuits - genetics
Male
Middle Aged
Polymorphism, Genetic
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
Abstract
The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHs) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) involved in alcohol metabolism are polymorphic. Different alleles encode subunits of the enzymes that are related to differences in alcohol metabolism with different ethnic groups. This study examined the allele frequencies at the ADH1, ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 loci in Alaska Natives entering treatment for alcoholism to determine if allele frequencies at these loci differ among five distinct Alaska Native groups: Yupik and Inupiat Eskimos, Athabascan, Tlingit and Aleut. It was found that all persons were homozygous for the ADH1*1, ADH2*1 and ALDH2*1 alleles. Variations, however, were found for the allele distribution of the ADH3 genotype. Comparison with a general population sample found no differences in allele distributions for ADHs and ALDH2*1, but differences were found when comparisons were made with four Asian Groups. The study's findings suggest that the Alaska Natives are not protected from the risk of alcoholism in the same way that Asians who possess the ALDH2*2 genotype are considered to have a negative risk factor. Nor, does there appear to be any generalized differences between Alaska Native alcoholics and members of the general population with respect to the ALDH and ADH polymorphisms studied herein.
PubMed ID
10224678 View in PubMed
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Ages of mutations on a coalescent tree.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203995
Source
Math Biosci. 1998 Oct;153(1):41-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1998
Author
R. Thomson
Author Affiliation
Mathematics Department, Monash University, Clayton, Vic., Australia. rjt@mws4.biol.berkeley.edu
Source
Math Biosci. 1998 Oct;153(1):41-61
Date
Oct-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Base Sequence - genetics
British Columbia
DNA, Mitochondrial - genetics
Female
Genetics, Population
Humans
Indians, North American - genetics
Male
Markov Chains
Models, Biological
Mutation - genetics
Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted
Phylogeny
Poisson Distribution
Population Dynamics
Washington
Abstract
Using the coalescent process, DNA sequences of a sample of individuals can be used to study the phylogenetic history of the individuals. Under the infinitely-many-sites mutation model, the DNA sequence data can be summarized by the number of segregating sites (which is numerically equivalent to the number of mutations on the tree). A number of methods exist, including a recursive method presented in this paper, that obtain an estimate of the age of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA), given the number of mutations. This paper introduces a method for finding the ages of mutations, given the total number of mutations on the tree. While the result is not useful in estimating the age of a specific segregating site, it is useful in examining the underlying assumption of a relatively constant population over time. This utilization of the result is illustrated using DNA sequence data obtained from a sample of Amerindians of the Nuu-Chah-Nulth tribe.
PubMed ID
9810160 View in PubMed
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Alternative explanation for similarities between Native Americans and Siberians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature206390
Source
Hum Biol. 1998 Feb;70(1):137-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1998

Alu insertion polymorphisms in Native Americans and related Asian populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169340
Source
Ann Hum Biol. 2006 Mar-Apr;33(2):142-60
Publication Type
Article
Author
Jaqueline Battilana
Nelson J R Fagundes
Ana H Heller
Angela Goldani
Loreta B Freitas
Eduardo Tarazona-Santos
Batmunkh Munkhbat
Namid Munkhtuvshin
Mlu Krylov
Lidia Benevolenskaia
Frank C Arnett
Mark A Batzer
Prescott L Deininger
Francisco M Salzano
Sandro L Bonatto
Author Affiliation
Centro de Biologia Genômica e Molecular, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Faculdade de Biociências, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
Source
Ann Hum Biol. 2006 Mar-Apr;33(2):142-60
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alu Elements - genetics
Asian Continental Ancestry Group - genetics
Emigration and Immigration - history
Ethnic Groups - genetics
Female
Gene Frequency
Genetic markers
Genetics, Population
Heterozygote
History, Ancient
Humans
Indians, North American - genetics
Indians, South American - genetics
Male
Mutagenesis, Insertional
Polymorphism, Genetic
Principal Component Analysis
Siberia - ethnology
Abstract
Alu insertions provide useful markers for the study of inter-population affinities and historical processes, but data on these systems are not numerous in Native Americans and related populations.
The study aimed to answer the following questions: (a) do the population relationships found agree with ethnic, historical and geographical data? and (b) what can heterozygote levels and associated results inform us about the events that led to the colonization of the New World?
Twelve Alu insertion polymorphisms were studied in 330 individuals belonging to South American Native, Siberian and Mongolian populations. These data were integrated with those from 526 persons, to ascertain the relationships between Asian, Northern Arctic and Amerindian populations.
A decreasing trend concerning heterozygosities and amount of gene flow was observed in the three sets, in the order indicated above. Most results indicated the validity of these subdivisions. However, no clear structure could be observed within South American Natives, indicating the importance of dispersive (genetic drift, founder effects) factors in their differentiation.
The answers to the questions are: (a) yes; and (b) an initial moderate bottleneck, intensified by more recent historical events (isolation and inbreeding), can explain the current Amerindian pattern of diversity.
PubMed ID
16684689 View in PubMed
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American Indian prehistory as written in the mitochondrial DNA: a review.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature223740
Source
Hum Biol. 1992 Jun;64(3):403-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1992
Author
D C Wallace
A. Torroni
Author Affiliation
Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322.
Source
Hum Biol. 1992 Jun;64(3):403-16
Date
Jun-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asia - ethnology
DNA, Mitochondrial - genetics
Emigration and Immigration - history
Genetic Markers - genetics
Genetic Variation
Haplotypes - genetics
History, Ancient
Humans
Indians, Central American - genetics - history
Indians, North American - genetics - history
Indians, South American - genetics - history
Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
Abstract
Native Americans have been divided into three linguistic groups: the reasonably well-defined Eskaleut and Nadene of northern North America and the highly heterogeneous Amerind of North, Central, and South America. The heterogeneity of the Amerinds has been proposed to be the result of either multiple independent migrations or a single ancient migration with extensive in situ radiation. To investigate the origin and interrelationship of the American Indians, we examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in 87 Amerinds (Pima, Maya, and Ticuna of North, Central, and South America, respectively), 80 Nadene (Dogrib and Tlingit of northwest North America and Navajo of the southwest North America), and 153 Asians from 7 diverse populations. American Indian mtDNAs were found to be directly descended from five founding Asian mtDNAs and to cluster into four lineages, each characterized by a different rare Asian mtDNA marker. Lineage A is defined by a HaeIII site gain at np 663, lineage B by a 9-bp deletion between the COII and tRNA(Lys) genes, lineage C by a HincII site loss at np 13259, and lineage D by an AluI site loss at np 5176. The North, Central, and South America Amerinds were found to harbor all four lineages, demonstrating that the Amerinds originated from a common ancestral genetic stock. The genetic variation of three of the four Amerind lineages (A, C, and D) was similar with a mean value of 0.084%, whereas the sequence variation in the fourth lineage (B) was much lower, raising the possibility of an independent arrival. By contrast, the Nadene mtDNAs were predominantly from lineage A, with 27% of them having a Nadene-specific RsaI site loss at np 16329. The accumulated Nadene variation was only 0.021%. These results demonstrate that the Amerind mtDNAs arose from one or maybe two Asian migrations that were distinct from the migration of the Nadene and that the Amerind populations are about four times older than the Nadene.
Notes
Comment In: Hum Biol. 1992 Jun;64(3):271-91607180
PubMed ID
1351474 View in PubMed
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Analysis of the lamin A/C gene as a candidate for type II diabetes susceptibility in Pima Indians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194139
Source
Diabetologia. 2001 Jun;44(6):779-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2001
Author
J K Wolford
R L Hanson
C. Bogardus
M. Prochazka
Author Affiliation
Phoenix Epidemiology and Research Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, Arizona 85016, USA.
Source
Diabetologia. 2001 Jun;44(6):779-82
Date
Jun-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alleles
Base Sequence - genetics
Body mass index
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - genetics
Gene Frequency
Genotype
Humans
Indians, North American - genetics
Lamin Type A
Lamins
Nuclear Proteins - genetics
Obesity - genetics - pathology
Polymorphism, Genetic - genetics
Abstract
Lamin A/C (LMNA) is located within a region on chromosome 1q that has been linked with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in Pima Indians. Rare mutations in exon 8 of LMNA underlie Dunnigan-Type familial partial lipodystrophy, a disease characterized by regional adipocyte degeneration and frequently accompanied by insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and diabetes. A more common variant in exon 10 (3408C/T) has recently been associated with obesity in non-diabetic aboriginal Canadian subjects. Because obesity is a strongly predisposing factor for Type II diabetes, we hypothesized that the LMNA 3408C/T variant could be associated with diabetes and body mass index in Pima Indians.
To determine whether the LMNA 3408C/T variant contributes to Type II diabetes susceptibility, we genotyped the polymorphism in 1,338 Pimas using allelic discrimination technology. The locus was screened for additional variants in 20 diabetic Pima Indians and non-diabetic Pima Indians using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and dideoxy sequencing.
We found no evidence for association of 3408C/T with diabetes, body mass index, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin concentrations, or indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion. Subsequent screening of the remaining LMNA exons and flanking sequences revealed only rare variants in intron 4 and the 3'UTR, showing no frequency differences between diabetic and non-diabetic Pima Indians. We reassessed the linkage with diabetes following adjustment for the LMNA 3408C/T variant; adjustment for the effects of LMNA did not substantially modify the evidence for linkage.
We conclude that the LMNA 3408C/T variant probably does not play a role in susceptibility to diabetes or obesity in Pima Indians.
PubMed ID
11440372 View in PubMed
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162 records – page 1 of 17.