Adherence to antiretroviral (ART) medication is vital to reducing morbidity and mortality among HIV positive persons. People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for HIV infection in transitional/low/middle income countries (TLMIC). We conducted a systematic review of studies reporting adherence to ART among persons with active injection drug use and/or histories of injection drug use in TLMIC. Meta-regression was performed to examine relationships between location, adherence measurements, and follow-up period. Fifteen studies were included from seven countries. Adherence levels ranged from 33 to 97 %; mean weighted adherence was 72 %. ART adherence was associated with different methods of measuring adherence and studies conducted in Eastern Europe and East Asia. The great heterogeneity observed precludes generalization to TLMIC as a whole. Given the critical importance of ART adherence more research is needed on ART adherence among PWID in TLMIC, including the use of standardized methods for reporting adherence to ART.
Cites: Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Oct 15;37(8):1112-814523777
Head and neck cancer care was analysed in 2167 unselected patients for management compliance and outcome. Median age was 55 years, with a male to female ratio of 5.5ratio1. Major sites were oropharynx (32.4 per cent), larynx (19.8 per cent), oral (16.6 per cent) and hypopharynx (12.9 per cent). Stage-wise distribution was I-II=8.9 per cent, III=20.6 per cent and IV=60.3 per cent and unstaged=10.2 per cent. Squamous cell carcinoma was the dominant histology for 90.9 per cent. Clinic-based cancer-directed treatment decisions were made for 1905 patients: curative intent in 53 per cent, palliative in 35 per cent and for the remaining 262 (12 per cent) supportive care. Overall, 1209 (56 per cent) patients complied with the prescribed treatments; 62 per cent, 54 per cent, and 35 per cent of curative, palliative and supportive care intent groups, respectively. Modalities were radiotherapy alone (64.6 per cent), combined surgery with irradiation (17.6 per cent), and chemoradiotherapy (11.2 per cent). Median follow-up periods were 17.5 and three months in curative and palliative groups respectively. Overall, 712 (33 per cent) cases received curative therapy, with three-year disease-specific survival of 49 per cent. Patient compliance was a major obstacle. The comparison of this series with the USA, Canada and Norway showed wide disparities in stage of presentation and survival.
Over the past few decades, obesity has reached epidemic proportions, and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic diseases and disability. There is little evidence on obesity related co-morbidities in BRICS countries. The first objective is to examine the factors associated with overweight and obesity in four of the five BRICS countries (China, India, Russia and South Africa). The second is to examine the linkage of obesity with selected morbidities.
We used data from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) survey conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) in China, India, Russia and South Africa during 2007-10. The morbidities included in the analysis are Hypertension, Diabetes, Angina, Stroke, Arthritis and Depression.
The prevalence of obesity was highest in South Africa (35%) followed by Russia (22%), China (5%) and India (3%). The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in females as compared to males in all the countries. While the wealth quintile was associated with overweight in India and China, engaging in work requiring physical activity was associated with obesity in China and South Africa. Overweight/obesity was positively associated with Hypertension and Diabetes in all the four countries. Obesity was also positively associated with Arthritis and Angina in China, Russia and South Africa. In comparison, overweight/obesity was not associated with Stroke and Depression in any of the four countries.
Obesity was statistically associated with Hypertension, Angina, Diabetes and Arthritis in China, Russia and South Africa. In India, obesity was associated only with Hypertension and Diabetes.
There is little published data on the potential health benefits of active travel in low and middle-income countries. This is despite increasing levels of adiposity being linked to increases in physical inactivity and non-communicable diseases. This study will examine: (1) socio-demographic correlates of using active travel (walking or cycling for transport) among older adults in six populous middle-income countries (2) whether use of active travel is associated with adiposity, systolic blood pressure and self-reported diabetes in these countries.
Data are from the WHO Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) of China, India, Mexico, Ghana, Russia and South Africa with a total sample size of 40,477. Correlates of active travel (=150 min/week) were examined using logistic regression. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to examine health related outcomes according to three groups of active travel use per week.
46.4% of the sample undertook =150 min of active travel per week (range South Africa: 21.9% Ghana: 57.8%). In pooled analyses those in wealthier households were less likely to meet this level of active travel (Adjusted Risk Ratio (ARR) 0.77, 95% Confidence Intervals 0.67; 0.88 wealthiest fifth vs. poorest). Older people and women were also less likely to use active travel for =150 min per week (ARR 0.71, 0.62; 0.80 those aged 70+ years vs. 18-29 years old, ARR 0.82, 0.74; 0.91 women vs. men). In pooled fully adjusted analyses, high use of active travel was associated with lower risk of overweight (ARR 0.71, 0.59; 0.86), high waist-to-hip ratio (ARR 0.71, 0.61; 0.84) and lower BMI (-0.54 kg/m(2), -0.98;- 0.11). Moderate (31-209 min/week) and high use (=210 min/week) of active travel was associated with lower waist circumference (-1.52 cm (-2.40; -0.65) and -2.16 cm (3.07; -1.26)), and lower systolic blood pressure (-1.63 mm/Hg (-3.19; -0.06) and -2.33 mm/Hg (-3.98; -0.69)).
In middle-income countries use of active travel for =150 min per week is more common in lower socio-economic groups and appears to confer similar health benefits to those identified in high-income settings. Efforts to increase active travel levels should be integral to strategies to maintain healthy weight and reduce disease burden in these settings.
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Atheromatous plaque reflects serum total cholesterol levels: a comparative morphologic study of endarterectomy coronary atherosclerotic plaques removed from patients from the southern part of India and Caucasians from Ottawa, Canada.
Natives of South India have a very high incidence of coronary artery disease, despite low calorie and fat intake.
This study was undertaken to determine whether morphologic features of atheromatous plaque reflect the serum total cholesterol.
Fifty-three endarterectomy specimens from patients (mean age 47 +/- 9 years, mean cholesterol 203 +/- 47 mg/dl) obtained from one cardiac surgeon working in a single institution in South India were evaluated. Morphologic findings were compared with 40 endoarterectomy specimens obtained from age-matched Caucasians from Ottawa, Canada, with a reported mean cholesterol of 262 +/- 47 mg/dl. Morphometric measurements of the vessel size, percent stenosis, and the various components of the atherosclerotic plaque were determined by computerized planimetry.
The vessel size was smaller in the Indian than in the Canadian population (4.6 +/- 2.9 vs. 5.6 +/- 3.0 mm2, p = 0.07), the plaque area was less (4.3 +/- 2.3 vs. 5.3 +/- 2.8 mm2, p = 0.055) and the calculated percent stenosis was significantly less (93 vs. 96%, p = 0.028). Of all the parameters evaluated, only necrotic core in the Indian population (7.1 +/- 10.9% vs. Canadian 16.7 +/- 19.7%, p
Interpretation of tuberculin reactions in revaccinated children is somewhat controversial among paediatricians. In this study, the effect of the number of BCG vaccines on tuberculin reactivity is evaluated. In 2810 healthy children aged 7 to 14 years with purified protein derivative (PPD) testing. Children were grouped according to the concordance of the number of the reported/documented vaccinations to the number of scars. Group 1 and 2 comprised of children 7 to 10 years of age and 11 to 14 years of age respectively, who had non-concordant scar numbers, and Group 3 and 4 included 7 to 10 and 11 to 14 years old children with concordant scar numbers. Mean tuberculin induration sizes were 8.0 +/- 5.7 mm for Group 1, 10.6 +/- 4.9 mm for Group 2, 9.8 +/- 4.9 mm for Group 3 and 10.9 +/- 4 mm for Group 4. As the time interval after the last dose of vaccination increased, mean induration sizes decreased in Group 1 and Group 3. In contrast, the mean reaction sizes of Group 2 and Group 4 showed a positive correlation with the period after the last dose of vaccine. It seems advisable that an induration size > or = 15 mm should not be attributed to BCG vaccination in countries with a high tuberculosis infection prevalence and routine BCG revaccination policies. A detailed investigation for tuberculosis infection and disease should be performed in those cases.
Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--are currently undergoing a deep epidemiological transition that is mainly driven by rapid economic growth and technological change. The changes being observed in the distribution of the burden of diseases and injuries--such as recent increases in the incidence of road traffic injuries--are matters of concern. BRICS may need stronger institutional capacity to address such changes in a timely way. In this paper, we present data on road traffic injuries in BRICS and illustrate the enormous challenge that these countries currently face in reducing the incidence of such injuries. There is an urgent need to improve road safety indicators in every country constituting BRICS. It is imperative for BRICS to invest in system-wide road safety interventions and reduce the mortality and morbidity from road traffic injuries.
Studies of immigrants have provided unique opportunities for examining disparities in cancer screening and the impact of lifestyles and environmental exposures on cancer risk. Findings have been useful for planning cancer control strategies and generating etiological hypotheses. Although India is a leading source of immigration to British Columbia (BC), Canada, little is known about the cancer profiles of Indo-Canadians, information needed for planning health services and health promotion initiatives for this population.
Using data from three population-based cancer registries, cancer incidence was compared for four population groups (in each of Delhi and Mumbai, India; Indo-Canadians in BC, Canada; and the BC general population) over three time periods (1976-1985, 1986-1995 and 1996-2003). BC Indo-Canadians were identified by using Indian surnames.
Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) for all cancers combined were lowest for men and women in Delhi and Mumbai, intermediate for BC Indo-Canadians, and highest for the BC general population. Ranking of common cancer sites and ASRs for Indo-Canadian men and women more closely resembled those for the BC general population, rather than those for either Delhi or Mumbai. ASRs and rankings of common cancer sites are presented by gender for the four population groups.
Cancer incidence patterns in BC Indo-Canadian men and women differed from those in India, being more similar to the BC general population.
We implemented a novel method for providing contextual adverse event rates for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) programme through coordinated analyses of five RA registries, focusing here on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality.
Each participating registry (Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America (CORRONA) (USA), Swedish Rheumatology Quality of Care Register (SRR) (Sweden), Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR) (UK), CORRONA International (East Europe, Latin America, India) and Institute of Rheumatology, Rheumatoid Arthritis (IORRA) (Japan)) defined a main cohort from January 2000 onwards. To address comparability and potential bias, we harmonised event definitions and defined several subcohorts for sensitivity analyses based on disease activity, treatment, calendar time, duration of follow-up and RCT exclusions. Rates were standardised for age, sex and, in one sensitivity analysis, also HAQ.
The combined registry cohorts included 57 251 patients with RA (234 089 person-years)-24.5% men, mean (SD) baseline age 58.2 (13.8) and RA duration 8.2 (11.7) years. Standardised registry mortality rates (per 100 person-years) varied from 0.42 (CORRONA) to 0.80 (NOAR), with 0.60 for RCT patients. Myocardial infarction and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) rates ranged from 0.09 and 0.31 (IORRA) to 0.39 and 0.77 (SRR), with RCT rates intermediate (0.18 and 0.42), respectively. Additional subcohort analyses showed small and mostly consistent changes across registries, retaining reasonable consistency in rates across the Western registries. Additional standardisation for HAQ returned higher mortality and MACE registry rates.
This coordinated approach to contextualising RA RCT safety data demonstrated reasonable differences and consistency in rates for mortality and CVD across registries, and comparable RCT rates, and may serve as a model method to supplement clinical trial analyses for drug development programmes.
Data on the association between chronic conditions or the number of chronic conditions and sleep problems in low- or middle-income countries is scarce, and global comparisons of these associations with high-income countries have not been conducted.
Data on 42116 individuals 50 years and older from nationally-representative samples of the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (Finland, Poland, Spain) and the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa) conducted between 2011-2012 and 2007-2010 respectively were analyzed.
The association between nine chronic conditions (angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and stroke) and self-reported severe/extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days was estimated by logistic regression with multiple variables. The age-adjusted prevalence of sleep problems ranged from 2.8% (China) to 17.0% (Poland). After adjustment for confounders, angina (OR 1.75-2.78), arthritis (OR 1.39-2.46), and depression (OR 1.75-5.12) were significantly associated with sleep problems in the majority or all of the countries. Sleep problems were also significantly associated with: asthma in Finland, Spain, and India; chronic lung disease in Poland, Spain, Ghana, and South Africa; diabetes in India; and stroke in China, Ghana, and India. A linear dose-dependent relationship between the number of chronic conditions and sleep problems was observed in all countries. Compared to no chronic conditions, the OR (95%CI) for 1,2,3, and = 4 chronic conditions was 1.41 (1.09-1.82), 2.55 (1.99-3.27), 3.22 (2.52-4.11), and 7.62 (5.88-9.87) respectively in the overall sample.
Identifying co-existing sleep problems among patients with chronic conditions and treating them simultaneously may lead to better treatment outcome. Clinicians should be aware of the high risk for sleep problems among patients with multimorbidity. Future studies are needed to elucidate the best treatment options for comorbid sleep problems especially in developing country settings.
Cites: J Clin Sleep Med. 2007 Aug 15;3(5):489-9417803012