Severe hypokalaemia can aggravate arrhythmia tendency and prognosis, but less is known about risk of mild hypokalaemia, which is a frequent finding. We examined the associations between mild hypokalaemia and ambulatory cardiac arrhythmias and their prognosis.
Subjects from the cohort of the 'Copenhagen Holter Study' (n = 671), with no history of manifest cardiovascular (CV) disease or stroke, were studied. All had laboratory tests and 48-h ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) recording. The median follow-up was 6.3 years. p-Potassium was inversely associated with frequency of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) especially in combination with diuretic treatment (r = -0.22, P = 0.015). Hypokalaemia was not associated with supraventricular arrhythmias. Subjects at lowest quintile of p-potassium (mean 3.42, range 2.7-3.6 mmol/L) were defined as hypokalaemic. Cardiovascular mortality was higher in the hypokalaemic group (hazard ratio and 95% confidence intervals: 2.62 (1.11-6.18) after relevant adjustments). Hypokalaemia in combination with excessive PVC worsened the prognosis synergistically; event rates: 83 per 1000 patient-year in subjects with both abnormalities, 10 and 15 per 1000 patient-year in those with one abnormality, and 3 per 1000 patient-year in subjects with no abnormality. One variable combining hypokalaemia with excessive supraventricular arrhythmias gave similar results in univariate analysis, but not after multivariate adjustments.
In middle-aged and elderly subjects with no manifest heart disease, mild hypokalaemia is associated with increased rate of ventricular but not supraventricular arrhythmias. Hypokalaemia interacts synergistically with increased ventricular ectopy to increase the risk of adverse events.
little is known about demographic and clinical characteristics associated with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) or central sleep apnoea (CSA) in community-dwelling elderly. We also examined these (OSA and CSA) associations to all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality.
a total of 331 community-dwelling elderly aged 71-87 years underwent a clinical examination and one-night polygraphic recordings in their homes. Mortality data were collected after seven years.
a total of 55% had SDB, 38% had OSA and 17% had CSA. Compared with those with no SDB and OSA, more participants with CSA had a left ventricular ejection fraction 75 years does not appear to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) disease or mortality, whereas CSA might be a pathological marker of CVD and impaired systolic function associated with higher mortality.
previously, a randomised controlled exercise intervention study (RCT) showed that combined resistance and balance-jumping training (COMB) improved physical functioning and bone strength. The purpose of this follow-up study was to assess whether this exercise intervention had long-lasting effects in reducing injurious falls and fractures.
five-year health-care register-based follow-up study after a 1-year, four-arm RCT.
community-dwelling older women in Finland.
one hundred and forty-five of the original 149 RCT participants; women aged 70-78 years at the beginning.
participants' health-care visits were collected from computerised patient register. An injurious fall was defined as an event in which the subject contacted the health-care professionals or was taken to a hospital, due to a fall. The rate of injured fallers was assessed by Cox proportional hazards model (hazard ratio, HR), and the rate of injurious falls and fractures by Poisson regression (risk ratio, RR).
eighty-one injurious falls including 26 fractures occurred during the follow-up. The rate of injured fallers was 62% lower in COMB group compared with the controls (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.85). In addition, COMB group had 51% less injurious falls (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.98) and 74% less fractures (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.97).
home-dwelling older women who participated in a 12-month intensive multi-component exercise training showed a reduced incidence for injurious falls during 5-year post-intervention period. Reduction in fractures was also evident. These long-term effects need to be confirmed in future studies.
Dementia, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) being the most common form, is a major hip fracture risk factor, but currently it is not known whether the same factors predict hip fracture among persons with and without dementia/AD. We compared the predictors of hip fracture and mortality after hip fracture in persons with and without AD.
An exposure-matched cohort of all community-dwellers of Finland who received a new clinically verified AD diagnosis in 2005-2011 and had no history of previous hip fracture (N = 67,072) and an age, sex, and region-matched cohort of persons without AD (N = 67,072). Associations between sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities and medications and risk of hip fracture and mortality after hip fracture were assessed with Cox regression.
As expected, the incidence of hip fractures in 2005-2012 (2.19/100 person-years vs 0.90/100 person-years in the non-AD cohort), as well as mortality after hip fracture (29/100 person-years vs 23/100 person-years in the non-AD cohort) were higher in the AD cohort. This difference was evident regardless of the risk factors. Mental and behavioural disorders (adjusted hazard ratio; HR 95% confidence interval CI: 1.16, 1.09-1.24 and 1.71, 1.52-1.92 in the AD and non-AD-cohorts), antipsychotics (1.12, 1.04-1.20 and 1.56, 1.38-1.76 for AD and non-AD-cohorts) and antidepressants (1.06, 1.00-1.12 and 1.34 1.22-1.47 for AD and non-AD-cohorts) were related to higher, and estrogen/combination hormone therapy (0.87, 0.77-0.9 and 0.79, 0.64-0.98 for AD and non-AD-cohorts) to lower hip fracture risk in both cohorts. Stroke (1.42, 1.26-1.62), diabetes (1.13, 0.99-1.28), active cancer treatment (1.67, 1.22-2.30), proton pump inhibitors (1.14, 1.05-1.25), antiepileptics (1.27, 1.11-1.46) and opioids (1.10, 1.01-1.19) were associated with higher hip fracture risk in the non-AD cohort. Similarly, the associations between mortality risk factors (age, sex, several comorbidities and medications) were stronger in the non-AD cohort.
AD itself appears to be such a significant risk factor for hip fracture, and mortality after hip fracture, that it overrules or diminishes the effect of other risk factors. Thus, it is important to develop and implement preventive interventions that are suitable and effective in this population.
To study how long antidepressants initiated after diagnoses of Alzheimer's disease (AD) were used and factors associated with discontinuation of use among persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, differences in duration of use between the antidepressants groups were compared.
Register-based Medication use and Alzheimer's disease (MEDALZ) cohort included 70,718 community-dwelling people with AD who were diagnosed during the years 2005-2011. For this study, the new antidepressant users were included after 1-year washout period (N?=?16,501; 68.6% females, mean age 80.9). The duration of antidepressant use was modeled with the PRE2DUP method. Factors associated with treatment discontinuation were assessed with Cox proportional hazard models and included age, gender, comorbid conditions and concomitant medications.
Median duration of the new antidepressant use period was 309 days (IQR 93-830). For selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use, the median duration was 331 days (IQR 101-829), for mirtazapine 202 days (IQR 52-635), and for serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) 134 days (IQR 37-522). After 1-year follow-up, 40.8% had discontinued antidepressant use, 54.6% after 2 years and 64.1% after 3 years. Factors associated with treatment discontinuation were age over 85, male gender, diabetes, and use of memantine, opioids, and antiepileptics whereas benzodiazepines and related drugs and antipsychotic use were inversely associated with discontinuation.
Antidepressants are used for long-term among people with AD. Need and indication for antidepressant use should be assessed regularly as evidence on their efficacy for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia is limited.
The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe and compare individual characteristics of hospitalized and not hospitalized community living persons, and (2) to determine factors that are associated with hospitalization risk over time. We conducted a prospective study with a multifactorial approach based on the population-based longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA). A total of 772 Swedes (mean age at baseline 69.7 years, range 46-103, 59.8% females) answered a postal questionnaire about physical and psychological health, personality and socioeconomic factors. During nine years of follow-up, information on hospitalizations and associated diagnoses were obtained from national registers. Results show that 484 persons (63%) had at least one hospital admission during the follow-up period. The most common causes of admission were cardiovascular diseases (25%) and tumors (22%). Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age, sex and dependency within twin pairs, showed that higher age (HR=1.02, p
The effect of home help services has been inconsistent. Raising the hypothesis that receiving small amounts of home help may postpone or prevent institutionalization, the aim of the present study is to analyze how light and heavy use of home help services was related to the risk for institutionalization. The study was a secondary analysis of a Danish intervention study on preventive home visits in 34 municipalities from 1999 to 2003, including 2642 home-dwelling older people who were nondisabled and did not receive public home help services at baseline in 1999 and who lived at home 18 months after baseline. Cox regression analysis showed that those who received home help services during the first 18 months after baseline were at higher risk of being institutionalized during the subsequent three years than those who did not receive such services. However, receiving home help for less than 1h per week during the first 18 months after baseline was not associated with an increased risk of institutionalization during the study period among those with physical or mental decline. Receiving public home help services was a strong indicator for institutionalization in Denmark. Receiving small amounts of home help and experiencing physical or mental decline was not associated with higher hazard for institutionalization compared with those who received no help.
even older adults who are fit experience adverse health outcomes; understanding their risks for adverse outcomes may offer insight into ambient population health. Here, we evaluated mortality risk in relation to social vulnerability among the fittest older adults in a representative community-dwelling sample of older Canadians.
in this secondary analysis of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, participants (n = 5,703) were aged 70+ years at baseline. A frailty index was used to grade relative levels of fitness/frailty, using 31 self-reported health deficits. The analysis was limited to the fittest people (those reporting 0-1 health deficit). Social vulnerability was trichotomised from a social vulnerability scale, which consisted of 40 self-reported social deficits.
five hundred and eighty-four individuals had 0-1 health deficit. Among them, absolute mortality risk rose with increasing social vulnerability. In those with the lowest level of social vulnerability, 5-year mortality was 10.8%, compared with 32.5% for those with the highest social vulnerability (adjusted hazard ratio 2.5, 95% CI: 1.5-4.3, P = 0.001).
a 22% absolute mortality difference in the fittest older adults is of considerable clinical and public health importance. Routine assessment of social vulnerability by clinicians could have value in predicting the risk of adverse health outcomes in older adults.
Participation in everyday life and society is generally seen as essential for health-related outcomes and acknowledged to affect older people's well-being.
To investigate if aspects of performance- and togetherness-related participation influence on mortality among very old single living people in Sweden.
ENABLE-AGE Survey Study data involving single-living participants in Sweden (N?=?314, aged 81-91 years), followed over 10 years were used. Multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for demographic and health-related variables were used to analyse specific items influencing mortality.
Participation in performance- or togetherness-oriented activities was found to significantly influence mortality [HR 0.62 (0.44-0.88), P value 0.006, and HR 0.72 (0.53-0.97), P value 0.031, respectively]. Talking to neighbours and following local politics had a protective effect on mortality, speaking to relatives on the phone (CI 1.10-2.02) and performing leisure activities together with others (CI 1.10-2.00) had the opposite influence. That is, those performing the latter activities were significantly more likely to die earlier.
The main contribution of this study is the facet of the results showing that aspects of performance- and togetherness-related participation have a protective effect on mortality in very old age. This is important knowledge for designing health promotion and preventive efforts for the ageing population. Moreover, it constitutes a contribution to the development of instruments capturing aspects of participation influencing on mortality.
In the development of health promotion and preventive efforts the inclusion of participation facets could be considered in favour of potential positive influences on longevity.
The kynurenine pathway, the main metabolic route of tryptophan degradation, has been related to inflammatory responses. Some of its metabolites, referred to as kynurenines, have been associated with prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in cross-sectional studies. This prospective study aims to investigate whether increased concentrations of kynurenines are associated with risk of acute coronary events, defined as unstable angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, and/or sudden death in community-dwelling elderly.
The baseline examinations included 2819 individuals aged 71-74 years recruited into the Hordaland Health Study. Participants with known CHD at baseline were excluded from analyses. Baseline plasma concentrations of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, xanthurenic acid, and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid were measured by LC-MS/MS. During a median follow-up period of 10.8 years, with linkage to acute coronary event endpoints through the CVDNOR project, hazard ratios (HRs) for acute coronary events (n = 376) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard analyses.
After adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors, HRs (95% CI) comparing the 4th vs 1st quartile were 1.86 (1.19-2.92) for kynurenine and 1.72 (1.19-2.49) for 3-hydroxykynurenine. Tryptophan, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, xanthurenic acid and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid were not associated with acute coronary events.
Kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine were associated with increased risk of acute coronary events in community-dwelling elderly without a known history of CHD. These results suggest the involvement of the kynurenine pathway in the early development of CHD, and their potential usefulness to estimate CHD risk.