Adiposity measured in mid- or late-life and estimated using anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), or metabolic markers such as blood leptin and adiponectin levels, is associated with late-onset dementia risk. However, during later life, this association may reverse and aging- and dementia-related processes may differentially affect adiposity measures.
We explored associations of concurrent BMI, WHR, and blood leptin and high molecular weight adiponectin levels with dementia occurrence.
924 Swedish community-dwelling elderly without dementia, aged 70 years and older, systematically-sampled by birth day and birth year population-based in the Gothenburg city region of Sweden. The Gothenburg Birth Cohort Studies are designed for evaluating risk and protective factors for dementia. All dementias diagnosed after age 70 for 10 years were identified. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to predict dementia occurrence between 2000-2005, 2005-2010, and 2000-2010 after excluding prevalent baseline (year 2000) dementias. Baseline levels of BMI, WHR, leptin, and adiponectin were used.
To study if an association between total weekly intake of alcohol, type-specific weekly alcohol intake, alcoholic beverage preference, and the number of teeth among older people exists.
A cross-sectional study including a total of 783 community-dwelling men and women aged 65-95 years who were interviewed about alcohol drinking habits and underwent a clinical oral and dental examination. Multiple regression analyses were applied for studying the association between total weekly alcohol consumption, beverage-specific alcohol consumption, beverage preference (defined as the highest intake of one beverage type compared with two other types), and the number of remaining teeth (= 20 versus >20 remaining teeth).
The odds ratio (OR) of having a low number of teeth decreased with the total intake of alcohol in women, with ORs for a low number of teeth of 0.40 [95 percent confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.76] in women drinking 1-14 drinks per week and 0.34 (95 percent CI 0.16-0.74) in women with an intake of more than 14 drinks per week compared with abstainers. Similar relations could also be obtained for type-specific alcohol intake of wine and for wine and spirits preference among women. Men who preferred beer showed a decreased risk for a low number of teeth compared with men with other alcohol preferences.
In this study, alcohol consumption, wine drinking, and wine and spirits preference among women were associated with a higher number of teeth compared with abstainers. Among men, those who preferred beer also had a higher number of teeth.
Oral health-related quality of life, OHRQoL, among elderly is an important concern for the health and welfare policy in Norway and Sweden. The aim of the study was to assess reproducibility, longitudinal validity and responsiveness of the OIDP frequency score. Whether the temporal relationship between tooth loss and OIDP varied by country of residence was also investigated.
In 2007 and 2012, all inhabitants born in 1942 in three and two counties of Norway and Sweden were invited to participate in a self-administered questionnaire survey. In Norway the response rates were 58.0% (4211/7248) and 54.5% (3733/6841) in 2007 and 2012. Corresponding figures in Sweden were 73.1% (6078/8313) and 72.2% (5697/7889), respectively.
Reproducibility of the OIDP in terms of intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.73 in Norway and 0.77 in Sweden. The mean change scores for OIDP were predominantly negative among those who worsened, zero in those who did not change and positive in participants who improved change scores of the reference variables; self-reported oral health and tooth loss. General Linear Models (GLM) repeated measures revealed significant interactions between OIDP and change scores of the reference variables (p?
Cites: Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2006;4:5616934161
Many older adults experience age-related changes that can have negative consequences for food intake. Some older adults continue to eat well despite these challenges showing dietary resilience. We aimed to describe the strategies used by older adults to overcome dietary obstacles and to explore the key themes of dietary resilience. The sample was drawn from the five-year Québec Longitudinal Study "NuAge". It included 30 participants (80% female) aged 73-87 years; 10 with decreased diet quality and 20 with steady or increased diet quality; all had faced key barriers to eating well. Semi-structured interviews explored how age-related changes affected participants' experiences with eating. Thematic analysis revealed strategies used to overcome eating, shopping, and meal preparation difficulties. Key themes of dietary resilience were: prioritizing eating well, doing whatever it takes to keep eating well, being able to do it yourself, getting help when you need it. Implications for health professionals are discussed.
To determine the effect of chronic disorders and their co-occurrence on survival and functioning in community-dwelling older adults.
Population-based cohort study.
Kungsholmen, Stockholm, Sweden.
Individuals aged 78 and older examined by physicians four times over 11 years (N = 1,099).
Chronic diseases (grouped according to 10 organ systems according to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, code) and multimorbidity (=2 coexisting chronic diseases) were evaluated in terms of mortality, population attributable risk of death, median years of life lost, and median survival time with and without disability (need of assistance in =1 activities of daily living).
Approximately one in four deaths were attributable to cardiovascular and one in six to neuropsychiatric diseases. Malignancy was the condition with the shortest survival time (2.5 years). Malignancies and cardiovascular disorders each accounted for approximately 5 years of life lost. In contrast, neurosensorial and neuropsychiatric conditions had the longest median survival time (>6 years), and affected people were disabled for more than half of this time. The most-prevalent and -burdensome condition was multimorbidity, affecting 70.4% of the population, accounting for 69.3% of total deaths, and causing 7.5 years of life lost. Finally, people with multimorbidity lived 81% of their remaining years of life with disability (median 5.2 years).
Survival in older adults differs in length and quality depending on specific conditions. The greatest negative effect at the individual (shorter life, greater dependence) and societal (number of attributable deaths, years spent with disability) level was from multimorbidity, which has made multimorbidity a clinical and public health priority.
Several theoretical viewpoints suggest that older adults need to modify their personal goals in the face of functional decline. The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinally the association of mobility limitation with changes in personal goals among older women.
Eight-year follow-up of 205 women aged 66-78 years at baseline.
Health-related goals were the most common at both measurements. Goals related to independent living almost doubled and goals related to exercise and to cultural activities substantially decreased during the follow-up. Higher age decreased the likelihood for engaging in new goals related to cultural activities and disengaging from goals related to independent living. Women who had developed mobility limitation during the follow-up were less likely to engage in new goals related to exercise and more likely to disengage from goals related to cultural activities and to health and functioning.
The results of this study support theories suggesting that age-related losses such as mobility limitation may result in older adults modifying or disengaging from personal goals.
To examine relationships between modifiable midlife factors, aging, and physical and cognitive function (independent aging) and survival in very old age.
Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men, Uppsala, Sweden.
Swedish men investigated in 1970-74 (aged 48.6-51.1) and followed up for four decades (N=2,293).
Conventional cardiovascular risk factors, body mass index (BMI), and dietary biomarkers were measured, and a questionnaire was used to gather information on lifestyle variables at age 50. Four hundred seventy-two men were reinvestigated in 2008-09 (aged 84.8-88.9). Independent aging was defined as survival to age 85, Mini-Mental State Examination score of 25 or greater, not living in an institution, independent in personal care and hygiene, able to walk outdoors without personal help, and no diagnosis of dementia. The National Swedish Death Registry provided survival data.
Thirty-eight percent of the cohort survived to age 85. Seventy-four percent of the participants in 2008-09 were aging independently. In univariable analyses, high leisure-time physical activity predicted survival but not independent aging. Low work-time physical activity was associated more strongly with independent aging (odds ratio (OR)=1.84, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.18-2.88) than with survival (OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.05-1.52). In multivariable analyses, midlife BMI was negatively associated (OR=0.80/SD, 95% CI=0.65-0.99/SD), and never or former smoking was positively associated (OR=1.66, 95% CI=1.07-2.59), with independent aging. As expected, conventional cardiovascular and lifestyle risk factors were associated with mortality.
A normal midlife BMI and not smoking were associated with independent aging close to four decades later, indicating that normal weight at midlife has the potential not only to increase survival, but also to preserve independence with aging.
The concept of "successful aging" has become widely accepted in gerontology, yet continues to have no common underlying definition. Researchers have increasingly looked to older individuals for their lay definitions of successful aging. The present analysis is based on responses to five questionnaires administered to surviving participants of the male Manitoba Follow-up Study cohort (www.mfus.ca) in 1996, 2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006 (n = 2,043 men were alive at a mean age of 78 years in 1996). One question on each survey asked: "What is YOUR definition of successful aging?" Applying content analysis to the 5,898 narratives received over the 11 years, we developed a coding system encompassing 21 main themes and 86 sub-themes defining successful aging. We quantitatively analyzed trends in prevalence of themes of successful aging prospectively over time. Our findings empirically support colleagues' past suggestions to shift from defining successful aging in primarily biomedical terms, by taking lay views into account.
To examine the longitudinal associations between aging with preserved functionality, i.e. independent aging and survival, and lifestyle variables, dietary pattern and cardiovascular risk factors.
Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men, Sweden.
Swedish men (n = 1,104) at a mean age of 71 (range 69.4-74.1) were investigated, 369 of whom were evaluated for independent aging 16 years later, at a mean age of 87 (range 84.8-88.9).
A questionnaire was used to obtain information on lifestyle, including education, living conditions, and physical activity. Adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet was assessed according to a modified Mediterranean Diet Score derived from 7-day food records. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured. Independent aging at a mean age of 87 was defined as lack of diagnosed dementia, a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 25 or greater, not institutionalized, independence in personal activities of daily living, and ability to walk outdoors alone. Complete survival data at age 85 were obtained from the Swedish Cause of Death Register.
Fifty-seven percent of the men survived to age 85, and 75% of the participants at a mean age of 87 displayed independent aging. Independent aging was associated with never smoking (vs current) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-4.60) and high (vs low) adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.14-6.80). Normal weight or overweight and waist circumference of 102 cm or less were also associated with independent aging. Similar associations were observed with survival.
Lifestyle factors such as never smoking, maintaining a healthy diet, and not being obese at age 71 were associated with survival and independent aging at age 85 and older in men.