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Active living among older Canadians: a time-use perspective over 3 decades.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116266
Source
J Aging Phys Act. 2014 Jan;22(1):103-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
Jamie E L Spinney
Hugh Millward
Author Affiliation
Dept. of Geography, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS, Canada.
Source
J Aging Phys Act. 2014 Jan;22(1):103-13
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - physiology - psychology
Canada - epidemiology
Demography
Energy Metabolism
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Independent Living - statistics & numerical data
Leisure Activities
Male
Motor Activity
Physical Exertion
Prevalence
Seasons
Socioeconomic Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
This research uses four nationally representative samples of time diary data, spanning almost 30 yr, that are fused with energy expenditure information to enumerate the median daily duration of moderate or vigorous effort activity, quantify the prevalence of Canadians age 65 yr and older who are meeting recommended daily levels of physical activity, and explore the factors affecting rates of active living. Results indicate that 41.1% of older Canadians met recommended levels of physical activity in 1992, 40.6% in 1998, 43.5% in 2005, and 39.6% in 2010. Both rates of active living and daily duration of aerobic activity exhibit significant differences among sociodemographic groups, with age, sex, activity limitation, urban-rural, and season exhibiting the most significant influences. This study illustrates the potential for time diary data to provide detailed surveillance of physical activity patterns, active aging research, and program development, as well.
PubMed ID
23416414 View in PubMed
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Associations of instrumental activities of daily living and handgrip strength with oral self-care among home-dwelling elderly 75+.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128053
Source
Gerodontology. 2012 Jun;29(2):e135-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2012
Author
Kaija Komulainen
Pekka Ylöstalo
Anna-Maija Syrjälä
Piia Ruoppi
Matti Knuuttila
Raimo Sulkava
Sirpa Hartikainen
Author Affiliation
Kuopio Research Centre of Geriatric Care, Unit of Clinical Pharmacology and Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland. kaija.komulainen@uef.fi
Source
Gerodontology. 2012 Jun;29(2):e135-42
Date
Jun-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged, 80 and over
Cognition - physiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dental Care - statistics & numerical data
Dental Plaque Index
Dentition
Educational Status
Female
Finland
Hand Strength - physiology
Humans
Independent living
Male
Oral Hygiene - statistics & numerical data
Population Surveillance
Toothbrushing - statistics & numerical data
Toothpastes - therapeutic use
Xerostomia - classification
Abstract
To study the associations of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and the handgrip strength with oral self-care among dentate home-dwelling elderly people in Finland.
The study analysed data for 168 dentate participants (mean age 80.6 years) in the population-based Geriatric Multidisciplinary Strategy for Good Care of the Elderly (GeMS) study. Each participant received a clinical oral examination and structured interview in 2004-2005. Functional status was assessed using the IADL scale and handgrip strength was measured using handheld dynamometry.
Study participants with high IADL (scores 7-8) had odds ratios (ORs) for brushing their teeth at least twice a day of 2.7 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.1-6.8], for using toothpaste at least twice a day of 2.0 (CI 0.8-5.2) and for having good oral hygiene of 2.8 (CI 1.0-8.3) when compared with participants with low IADL (scores =6). Participants in the upper tertiles of the handgrip strength had ORs for brushing the teeth at least twice a day of 0.9 (CI 0.4-1.9), for using the toothpaste at least twice a day of 0.9 (CI 0.4-1.8) and for good oral hygiene of 1.1 (CI 0.5-2.4) in comparison with the study subjects in the lowest tertile of handgrip strength.
The results of this study suggest that the functional status, measured by means of the IADL scale, but not handgrip strength, is an important determinant of oral self-care among the home-dwelling elderly.
PubMed ID
22239745 View in PubMed
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Change in Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP) with increasing age: testing the evaluative properties of the OIDP frequency inventory using prospective data from Norway and Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258830
Source
BMC Oral Health. 2014;14:59
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Ferda Gülcan
Elwalid Nasir
Gunnar Ekbäck
Sven Ordell
Anne Nordrehaug Åstrøm
Source
BMC Oral Health. 2014;14:59
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Age Factors
Aged
Cohort Studies
Eating - physiology
Esthetics, Dental
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health status
Humans
Independent living
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Norway
Oral Health - statistics & numerical data
Personal Satisfaction
Prospective Studies
Quality of Life
Reproducibility of Results
Self Report
Smiling - psychology
Social Class
Sweden
Tooth Loss - psychology
Work
Abstract
Oral health-related quality of life, OHRQoL, among elderly is an important concern for the health and welfare policy in Norway and Sweden. The aim of the study was to assess reproducibility, longitudinal validity and responsiveness of the OIDP frequency score. Whether the temporal relationship between tooth loss and OIDP varied by country of residence was also investigated.
In 2007 and 2012, all inhabitants born in 1942 in three and two counties of Norway and Sweden were invited to participate in a self-administered questionnaire survey. In Norway the response rates were 58.0% (4211/7248) and 54.5% (3733/6841) in 2007 and 2012. Corresponding figures in Sweden were 73.1% (6078/8313) and 72.2% (5697/7889), respectively.
Reproducibility of the OIDP in terms of intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.73 in Norway and 0.77 in Sweden. The mean change scores for OIDP were predominantly negative among those who worsened, zero in those who did not change and positive in participants who improved change scores of the reference variables; self-reported oral health and tooth loss. General Linear Models (GLM) repeated measures revealed significant interactions between OIDP and change scores of the reference variables (p?
Notes
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PubMed ID
24884798 View in PubMed
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Concurrent validity of the Swedish version of the life-space assessment questionnaire.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282982
Source
BMC Geriatr. 2016 11 08;16(1):181
Publication Type
Article
Date
11-08-2016
Author
Sofi Fristedt
Ann-Sofi Kammerlind
Marie Ernsth Bravell
Eleonor I Fransson
Source
BMC Geriatr. 2016 11 08;16(1):181
Date
11-08-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Architectural Accessibility - methods - standards
Female
Humans
Independent Living - standards
Male
Mobility Limitation
Reproducibility of Results
Social Support
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Translating
Abstract
The Life-Space Assessment (LSA), developed in the USA, is an instrument focusing on mobility with respect to reaching different areas defined as life-spaces, extending from the room where the person sleeps to mobility outside one's hometown. A newly translated Swedish version of the LSA (LSA-S) has been tested for test-retest reliability, but the validity remains to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the concurrent validity of the LSA-S, by comparing and correlating the LSA scores to other measures of mobility.
The LSA was included in a population-based study of health, functioning and mobility among older persons in Sweden, and the present analysis comprised 312 community-dwelling participants. To test the concurrent validity, the LSA scores were compared to a number of other mobility-related variables, including the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) as well as "stair climbing", "transfers", "transportation", "food shopping", "travel for pleasure" and "community activities". The LSA total mean scores for different levels of the other mobility-related variables, and measures of correlation were calculated.
Higher LSA total mean scores were observed with higher levels of all the other mobility related variables. Most of the correlations between the LSA and the other mobility variables were large (r?=?0.5-1.0) and significant at the 0.01 level. The LSA total score, as well as independent life-space and assistive life-space correlated with transportation (0.63, 0.66, 0.64) and food shopping (0.55, 0.58, 0.55). Assistive life-space also correlated with SPPB (0.47). With respect to maximal life-space, the correlations with the mobility-related variables were generally lower (below 0.5), probably since this aspect of life-space mobility is highly influenced by social support and is not so dependent on the individual's own physical function.
LSA was shown to be a valid measure of mobility when using the LSA total, independent LS or assistive LSA.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27821138 View in PubMed
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Do Associations Between Perceived Environmental and Individual Characteristics and Walking Limitations Depend on Lower Extremity Performance Level?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291084
Source
J Aging Health. 2017 Jun; 29(4):640-656
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
Ritva Sakari
Merja Rantakokko
Erja Portegijs
Susanne Iwarsson
Sarianna Sipilä
Anne Viljanen
Taina Rantanen
Author Affiliation
1 University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
Source
J Aging Health. 2017 Jun; 29(4):640-656
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cross-Sectional Studies
Disability Evaluation
Environment
Female
Geriatric Assessment - methods
Humans
Independent living
Interviews as Topic
Lower Extremity - physiopathology
Male
Mobility Limitation
Perception
Physical Fitness - physiology
Sweden
Task Performance and Analysis
Walking - physiology
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze whether the associations between perceived environmental and individual characteristics and perceived walking limitations in older people differ between those with intact and those with poorer lower extremity performance.
Persons aged 75 to 90 ( N = 834) participated in interviews and performance tests in their homes. Standard questionnaires were used to obtain walking difficulties; environmental barriers to and, facilitators of, mobility; and perceived individual hindrances to outdoor mobility. Lower extremity performance was tested using Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB).
Among those with poorer lower extremity performance, the likelihood for advanced walking limitations was, in particular, related to perceived poor safety in the environment, and among those with intact performance to perceived social issues, such as lack of company, as well as to long distances.
The environmental correlates of walking limitations seem to depend on the level of lower extremity performance.
PubMed ID
27056910 View in PubMed
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Effect of Chronic Diseases and Multimorbidity on Survival and Functioning in Elderly Adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286615
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017 May;65(5):1056-1060
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2017
Author
Debora Rizzuto
René J F Melis
Sara Angleman
Chengxuan Qiu
Alessandra Marengoni
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017 May;65(5):1056-1060
Date
May-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Chronic Disease - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Female
Geriatric Assessment - methods
Humans
Independent living
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mortality
Prevalence
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
To determine the effect of chronic disorders and their co-occurrence on survival and functioning in community-dwelling older adults.
Population-based cohort study.
Kungsholmen, Stockholm, Sweden.
Individuals aged 78 and older examined by physicians four times over 11 years (N = 1,099).
Chronic diseases (grouped according to 10 organ systems according to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, code) and multimorbidity (=2 coexisting chronic diseases) were evaluated in terms of mortality, population attributable risk of death, median years of life lost, and median survival time with and without disability (need of assistance in =1 activities of daily living).
Approximately one in four deaths were attributable to cardiovascular and one in six to neuropsychiatric diseases. Malignancy was the condition with the shortest survival time (2.5 years). Malignancies and cardiovascular disorders each accounted for approximately 5 years of life lost. In contrast, neurosensorial and neuropsychiatric conditions had the longest median survival time (>6 years), and affected people were disabled for more than half of this time. The most-prevalent and -burdensome condition was multimorbidity, affecting 70.4% of the population, accounting for 69.3% of total deaths, and causing 7.5 years of life lost. Finally, people with multimorbidity lived 81% of their remaining years of life with disability (median 5.2 years).
Survival in older adults differs in length and quality depending on specific conditions. The greatest negative effect at the individual (shorter life, greater dependence) and societal (number of attributable deaths, years spent with disability) level was from multimorbidity, which has made multimorbidity a clinical and public health priority.
PubMed ID
28306158 View in PubMed
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Effects of preventive home visits on health-related quality-of-life and mortality in home-dwelling older adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300278
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2019 Mar; 37(1):90-97
Publication Type
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Date
Mar-2019
Author
Heini Liimatta
Pekka Lampela
Pirjo Laitinen-Parkkonen
Kaisu H Pitkala
Author Affiliation
a Hyvinkää City Health Centre , Hyvinkää , Finland.
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2019 Mar; 37(1):90-97
Date
Mar-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Geriatric Assessment
Home Care Services
House Calls
Humans
Independent living
Male
Mortality
Preventive Health Services
Quality of Life
Abstract
We explored the effectiveness of preventive home visits on the health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) and mortality among independently community-dwelling older adults.
A randomised controlled trial.
Independently home-dwelling older adults 75 years and older, consisting of 211 in the intervention and 211 in the control group.
Hyvinkää town municipality, Finland.
We used the change in HRQoL measured by the 15D scale as our primary outcome. Mortality at two years was retrieved from central registers.
At the one-year time point, the HRQoL according to the 15D scores deteriorated in the control group, whereas we found no change in the intervention group. The difference between the 15D score changes between the groups was -0.015 (95% CI -0.029 to -0.0016; p?=?0.028, adjusted for age, sex, and baseline value). At the two-year time point as the visits ended, that difference diminished. There was no difference in mortality between the groups during the 24-month follow-up.
Preventive home visits implemented by a multidisciplinary team with CGA appear to help slow down the decline in HRQoL among older adults, although the effect diminishes when the visits end. Key points We are exploring preventive home visits as means to support the health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) of home-dwelling older adults Multiprofessional preventive home visits in this intervention study helped to maintain the HRQoL when measured using 15D The effects on HRQoL diminished when the intervention ended, so could further benefits be attained with a longer intervention?The clinical trial registration number: ACTRN12616001411437.
PubMed ID
30810457 View in PubMed
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Effects of the Finnish Alzheimer disease exercise trial (FINALEX): a randomized controlled trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114708
Source
JAMA Intern Med. 2013 May 27;173(10):894-901
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-27-2013
Author
Kaisu H Pitkälä
Minna M Pöysti
Marja-Liisa Laakkonen
Reijo S Tilvis
Niina Savikko
Hannu Kautiainen
Timo E Strandberg
Author Affiliation
Unit of Primary Health Care, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland. kaisu.pitkala@helsinki.fi
Source
JAMA Intern Med. 2013 May 27;173(10):894-901
Date
May-27-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alzheimer Disease - economics - therapy
Caregivers
Day Care - economics - organization & administration
Exercise Therapy - economics - methods - organization & administration
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
House Calls - economics
Humans
Independent living
Male
Physical Therapists
Prospective Studies
Quality of Life
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Few rigorous clinical trials have investigated the effectiveness of exercise on the physical functioning of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD).
To investigate the effects of intense and long-term exercise on the physical functioning and mobility of home-dwelling patients with AD and to explore its effects on the use and costs of health and social services.
A randomized controlled trial.
A total of 210 home-dwelling patients with AD living with their spousal caregiver.
The 3 trial arms included (1) group-based exercise (GE; 4-hour sessions with approximately 1-hour training) and (2) tailored home-based exercise (HE; 1-hour training), both twice a week for 1 year, and (3) a control group (CG) receiving the usual community care.
The Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the Short Physical Performance Battery, and information on the use and costs of social and health care services.
All groups deteriorated in functioning during the year after randomization, but deterioration was significantly faster in the CG than in the HE or GE group at 6 (P = .003) and 12 (P = .015) months. The FIM changes at 12 months were -7.1 (95% CI, -3.7 to -10.5), -10.3 (95% CI, -6.7 to -13.9), and -14.4 (95% CI, -10.9 to -18.0) in the HE group, GE group, and CG, respectively. The HE and GE groups had significantly fewer falls than the CG during the follow-up year. The total costs of health and social services for the HE patient-caregiver dyads (in US dollars per dyad per year) were $25,112 (95% CI, $17,642 to $32,581) (P = .13 for comparison with the CG), $22,066 in the GE group ($15,931 to $28,199; P = .03 vs CG), and $34,121 ($24,559 to $43,681) in the CG.
An intensive and long-term exercise program had beneficial effects on the physical functioning of patients with AD without increasing the total costs of health and social services or causing any significant adverse effects.
anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12608000037303.
Notes
Comment In: Ann Intern Med. 2013 Aug 20;159(4):JC1024026274
Comment In: MMW Fortschr Med. 2013 Nov 7;155(19):3224475662
Comment In: JAMA Intern Med. 2013 May 27;173(10):901-223588877
PubMed ID
23589097 View in PubMed
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Forgotten resources of older home care clients: focus group study in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115670
Source
Nurs Health Sci. 2013 Sep;15(3):333-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
Riitta Turjamaa
Sirpa Hartikainen
Anna-Maija Pietilä
Author Affiliation
Department of Nursing Science, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
Source
Nurs Health Sci. 2013 Sep;15(3):333-9
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Female
Finland
Focus Groups
Frail Elderly - psychology
Geriatric Assessment
Health Resources - organization & administration
Home Care Services - organization & administration
Humans
Independent Living - psychology
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Nurses, Community Health - organization & administration
Quality of Life
Self-Help Groups
Abstract
In this qualitative focus group study, the resources available to older home-dwelling people, particularly incoming and existing home care clients, are described from the viewpoint of home care professionals (n?=?32). The data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. There were three categories of older people requiring resources from the viewpoint of interviewers: home-dwelling people, incoming home care clients, and existing home care clients. Based on the analysis, the resources of older home-dwelling people were categorized in terms of support, meaningful life, everyday activities, and environment. Incoming home care client resources were support, out-of-home activities, in-home activities, and environment. Existing client resources were described in terms of support, everyday activities, and environment. Home care professionals described the resources of the older home-dwelling people in diverse ways, but those of the perspective of existing clients were reduced. The biggest difference was in everyday activities. Psychological and social resources, including meaningful life and social relationships, seemed to be forgotten. All available resources must be taken into account, especially in the everyday home care services for existing home care clients.
PubMed ID
23480058 View in PubMed
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Formal and Informal Care of Community-Living Older People: A Population-Based Study from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285244
Source
J Nutr Health Aging. 2017;21(1):17-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
A. Wimo
S. Elmståhl
L. Fratiglioni
B-M Sjölund
A. Sköldunger
C. Fagerström
J. Berglund
M. Lagergren
Source
J Nutr Health Aging. 2017;21(1):17-24
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging
Cognition
Cognition Disorders - therapy
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Independent living
Male
Patient Care
Sweden
Abstract
Study formal and informal care of community-living older people in the Swedish National study of Aging and Care (SNAC).
Cross-sectional, population based cohort.
Three areas in Sweden: Municipality of Nordanstig, Stockholm and Skåne County.
3,338 persons =72 years.
Patterns and amounts of informal and formal care by cognition and area of residence.
73% received no care; 14% formal care; and 17% informal care (7% received both). In the whole study population, including those who used no care, individuals in small municipalities received 9.6 hours of informal care/month; in mid-size municipalities, 6.6; and in urban areas, 5.6. Users of informal care received 33.1 hours of informal care/month in small municipalities, 54.6 in mid-size municipalities and 36.1 in urban areas. Individuals with cognitive impairment received 14.1 hours of informal care/month, 2.7 times more than people with no/slight impairment. In the whole study population, individuals in small municipalities received an average of 3.2 hours of formal care/month; in mid-size municipalities 1.4; and in urban areas, 2.6. Corresponding figures for formal care users were 29.4 hours in small municipalities, 13.6 in mid-size municipalities and 16.7 in urban areas. Formal care users received 7.1 hours, and informal care users, 5.9 hours for each hour/month received by people in the study population as a whole.
More informal than formal care was provided. Informal care is more frequent in small municipalities than urban areas and for those with than without cognitive impairment. The relationship between data on the whole population and the data on users or care indicates that population-based data are needed to avoid overestimates of care.
PubMed ID
27999845 View in PubMed
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31 records – page 1 of 4.