Little is known about variations in social participation among individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) living in different environments.
To examine the social participation of individuals with moderate-to-severe TBI across various living arrangements.
One hundred and thirty-six individuals with moderate-to-severe TBI, living either in natural settings (e.g. home), intermediate settings (e.g. group homes or foster families) or structured settings (e.g. nursing home or long-term care facilities) and requiring daily assistance, were interviewed using the LIFE-H tool, which measures the level of difficulty and the assistance required to carry out life habits and resulting social participation. Participation in six categories of life habits pertaining to Activities of Daily Living and five categories pertaining to Social Roles were examined.
The level of difficulty and the assistance required to carry out the life habits and the overall level of social participation were associated with living arrangements. Participation scores in Activities of Daily Living varied across living arrangements while Social Roles scores did not.
Living arrangements (such as intermediate settings) may better support social participation in individuals with TBI. There is a need to further study the issue of living arrangements as they seem to facilitate the performance of life habits, which impacts the social participation of individuals with TBI.