To study the associations of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and the handgrip strength with oral self-care among dentate home-dwelling elderly people in Finland.
The study analysed data for 168 dentate participants (mean age 80.6 years) in the population-based Geriatric Multidisciplinary Strategy for Good Care of the Elderly (GeMS) study. Each participant received a clinical oral examination and structured interview in 2004-2005. Functional status was assessed using the IADL scale and handgrip strength was measured using handheld dynamometry.
Study participants with high IADL (scores 7-8) had odds ratios (ORs) for brushing their teeth at least twice a day of 2.7 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.1-6.8], for using toothpaste at least twice a day of 2.0 (CI 0.8-5.2) and for having good oral hygiene of 2.8 (CI 1.0-8.3) when compared with participants with low IADL (scores =6). Participants in the upper tertiles of the handgrip strength had ORs for brushing the teeth at least twice a day of 0.9 (CI 0.4-1.9), for using the toothpaste at least twice a day of 0.9 (CI 0.4-1.8) and for good oral hygiene of 1.1 (CI 0.5-2.4) in comparison with the study subjects in the lowest tertile of handgrip strength.
The results of this study suggest that the functional status, measured by means of the IADL scale, but not handgrip strength, is an important determinant of oral self-care among the home-dwelling elderly.
Older people are at high risk of experiencing psychotropic-related adverse drug events. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast the use of psychotropic drugs among community-dwelling people aged = 75 years in 1998 and 2004.
Comparable random samples of people aged = 75 years were extracted from the population register in Kuopio, Finland, in 1998 (n = 700) and 2003 (n = 1000). In 1998 and 2004, 523 and 700 community-dwelling people respectively participated in nurse interviews, during which demographic, diagnostic and drug use data were elicited. Logistic regression was used to compute unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the prevalence of psychotropic drug use in 2004 compared to 1998.
The unadjusted prevalence of total psychotropic (37.3% and 38.4%, OR 1.05; 95% CI 0.83-1.33), anxiolytic, hypnotic and sedative (29.6% and 31.3%, OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.85-1.38), and antidepressant (10.7% and 11.9%, OR 1.12, 95% CI 0.78-1.61) use were similar in 1998 and 2004. There was a decrease in the unadjusted prevalence of antipsychotic use (9.2% and 5.7%, OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.39-0.93). After adjusting for socioeconomic and health status differences, there was an increase in the prevalence of total psychotropic (adjusted OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.01-1.70) and antidepressant (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.06-2.40) use.
The unadjusted prevalence of psychotropic drug use remained stable between 1998 and 2004. However, in adjusted analyses there was a small increase in the prevalence of any psychotropic drug use and antidepressant use specifically.
To produce evidence on an association between the number of teeth and selected cardiovascular risk factors among an elderly population.
The study population comprised of 523 community-living elderly people who participated in the population-based Kuopio 75+ study. The data for each subject were collected using a structured clinical health examination, an interview and laboratory tests. Linear regression models were used to estimate adjusted mean values and confidence limits.
Edentulous persons and persons with a small number of teeth had lower serum HDL cholesterol and higher triglyceride, leucocyte and blood glucose levels and a higher body mass index (BMI) compared with subjects to a large number of teeth.
The study showed that, in the Finnish home-dwelling population aged 75 years or older, those with a large number of teeth were less likely to have cardiovascular risk factors such as a low serum HDL cholesterol level, a high triglyceride level and a high BMI than did subjects with a small number of teeth or who were edentulous.
Antidepressants are used to treat depression and behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD), although their effectiveness has been questioned and evidence about the risks is accumulating. The objective of this study was to compare antidepressant use among persons with and without AD in Finland.
The Social Insurance Institution of Finland (SII) identified all persons with a verified diagnosis of AD in Finland on December 31, 2005. For each person with AD a comparison person matched for age, sex and region of residence was also identified. Data on reimbursed drug purchases in 2005 were extracted from the Finnish National Prescription Register (FNPR). Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for antidepressant use.
The study sample comprised of 28,089 matched pairs of persons with and without AD (mean age 80.0 SD 6.8, 32.2% men).The prevalence of antidepressant use was higher among persons with AD than without AD (29.4% vs. 10.7%, OR = 3.54; 95% CI: 3.38, 3.70). Among the persons with AD, the prevalence of antidepressant use increased with time since AD diagnosis but not with age. Overall, 90.4% of antidepressant users with AD were co-dispensed anti-dementia drugs.
The antidepressant use was three times more prevalent among persons with AD compared to those without. Though the antidepressant selection was largely consistent with clinical practice guidelines, the high prevalence of use warrants further investigation given the uncertain effectiveness and adverse events related to these drugs.