Older people are at high risk of experiencing psychotropic-related adverse drug events. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast the use of psychotropic drugs among community-dwelling people aged = 75 years in 1998 and 2004.
Comparable random samples of people aged = 75 years were extracted from the population register in Kuopio, Finland, in 1998 (n = 700) and 2003 (n = 1000). In 1998 and 2004, 523 and 700 community-dwelling people respectively participated in nurse interviews, during which demographic, diagnostic and drug use data were elicited. Logistic regression was used to compute unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the prevalence of psychotropic drug use in 2004 compared to 1998.
The unadjusted prevalence of total psychotropic (37.3% and 38.4%, OR 1.05; 95% CI 0.83-1.33), anxiolytic, hypnotic and sedative (29.6% and 31.3%, OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.85-1.38), and antidepressant (10.7% and 11.9%, OR 1.12, 95% CI 0.78-1.61) use were similar in 1998 and 2004. There was a decrease in the unadjusted prevalence of antipsychotic use (9.2% and 5.7%, OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.39-0.93). After adjusting for socioeconomic and health status differences, there was an increase in the prevalence of total psychotropic (adjusted OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.01-1.70) and antidepressant (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.06-2.40) use.
The unadjusted prevalence of psychotropic drug use remained stable between 1998 and 2004. However, in adjusted analyses there was a small increase in the prevalence of any psychotropic drug use and antidepressant use specifically.
The decision to relocate in old age is intricately linked to thoughts and desires to stay put. However, most research focuses either on strategies that allow people to age in place or on their reasons for relocation. There is a need for more knowledge on very old peoples' residential reasoning, including thoughts about aging in place and thoughts about relocation as one intertwined process evolving in everyday life. The aim of this study was to explore what we refer to as the process of residential reasoning and how it changes over time among very old people, and to contribute to the theoretical development regarding aging in place and relocation. Taking a longitudinal perspective, data stem from the ENABLE-AGE In-depth Study, with interviews conducted in 2003 followed up in interviews in 2011. The 16 participants of the present study were 80-89years at the time of the first interview. During analysis the Theoretical Model of Residential Normalcy by Golant and the Life Course Model of Environmental Experience by Rowles & Watkins were used as sensitizing concepts. The findings revealed changes in the process of residential reasoning that related to a wide variety of issues. Such issues included the way very old people use their environmental experience, their striving to build upon or dismiss attachment to place, and their attempts to maintain or regain residential normalcy during years of declining health and loss of independence. In addition, the changes in reasoning were related to end-of-life issues. The findings contribute to the theoretical discussion on aging in place, relocation as a coping strategy, and reattachment after moving in very old age.
The aim is to determine concurrent validity of a single self-report habitual physical activity (PA) question against accelerometer-based PA and mobility variables, and corresponding changes in self-reported PA and mobility. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data of the "Life-space mobility in old age" (LISPE) cohort and its substudy on PA were utilized. At baseline, 848 community-dwelling, 75- to 90-year-old people living independently in central Finland participated in home-based interviews. One and 2 years later, 816 and 761 of them were reassessed by phone, respectively. Tri-axial accelerometer data over 7 days were collected following the baseline assessments in a subsample of 174. Self-reported habitual PA was assessed based on intensity and duration using a single question with seven response options (range: mostly resting to competitive sports). Mobility variables were as follows: life-space mobility, walking difficulty over 500 m, and short physical performance battery. Statistically significant correlations were found between self-reported habitual PA and mobility (Spearman correlation coefficient Rs = 0.40-0.61) and accelerometer-based PA variables [step counts (Rs = 0.49), time in moderate (Rs = 0.49) and low intensity (Rs = 0.40) PA, and time in sedentary behavior (Rs = -0.28)]. A decline in self-reported habitual PA over time was associated with 5-10p decline in life-space mobility (PA improvement with 0-3p increase) and with developing a higher degree of walking difficulty (in 35-44% of participants). In conclusion, based on these results, the self-report question to assess habitual PA is valid and responsive to change and thus useful for epidemiological research in community-dwelling older people, also in follow-up studies.
The aim was to study whether perceived environmental barriers to outdoor mobility affect changes in sense of autonomy in participation outdoors among community-dwelling older people over a two-year period.
Community-dwelling people aged 75-90 years (n = 848) in central Finland were interviewed on two occasions, face-to-face at baseline and over the telephone two years later. Perceived environmental barriers to outdoor mobility were assessed using a 15-item structured questionnaire, and the sum scores categorized into tertiles (0, 1 and 2 or more barriers). Autonomy in participation outdoors was assessed with the 'Impact on Participation and Autonomy' (IPA) questionnaire using the autonomy outdoors subscale (score range 0-20, higher scores indicating more restricted autonomy).
Scores for autonomy in participation outdoors were available for 848 participants at baseline (mean 6.2, SD = 3.8) and for 748 participants at the two-year follow-up (mean 6.7, SD = 3.9). At baseline, those reporting multiple environmental barriers had the most restricted autonomy, while those reporting no environmental barriers had the least restricted autonomy (p
In Iceland, there is a large variation in daylight between summer and winter. The aim of the study was to identify how this large variation influences physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Free living PA was measured by a waist-worn accelerometer for one week during waking hours in 138 community-dwelling older adults (61.1% women, 80.3 ± 4.9 years) during summer and winter months. In general, SB occupied about 75% of the registered wear-time and was highly correlated with age (ß = 0.36). Although the differences were small, more time was spent during the summer in all PA categories, except for the moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and SB was reduced. More lifestyle PA (LSPA) was accumulated in =5-min bouts during summer than winter, especially among highly active participants. This information could be important for policy makers and health professionals working with older adults. Accounting for seasonal difference is necessary in analyzing SB and PA data.
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Many people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) live alone in their own homes. There is a lack of knowledge about whether these individuals receive the same quality of diagnostics and treatment for AD as patients who are cohabiting.
To investigate the diagnostic work-up and treatment of community-dwelling AD patients who live alone.
We performed a cross-sectional cohort study based on data from the Swedish Dementia Registry (SveDem). We studied patients diagnosed with AD between 2007 and 2015 (n?=?26,163). Information about drugs and comorbidities was acquired from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and the Swedish Patient Register.
11,878 (46%) patients lived alone, primarily older women. After adjusting for confounders, living alone was inversely associated with receiving computed tomography (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.82-0.99), magnetic resonance imaging (OR 0.91; 95% CI 0.83-0.99), and lumbar puncture (OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.80-0.92). Living alone was also negatively associated with the use of cholinesterase inhibitors (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.76; 0.87), memantine (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.72; 0.83), and cardiovascular medication (OR 0.92; 0.86; 0.99). On the other hand, living alone was positively associated with the use of antidepressants (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.08; 1.22), antipsychotics (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.25; 1.58), and hypnotics and sedatives (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.02; 1.17).
Solitary living AD patients do not receive the same extent of care as those who are cohabiting.
Cites: Aging Ment Health. 2017 Oct;21(10 ):1065-1071 PMID 27267633
Cites: J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2017 Jan;18(1):19-23 PMID 27639334
To explore the relationship between inner strength and health threats among community-dwelling older women.
Inner strength is described as a resource that promotes experiences of health, despite adversities. Inner strength and its dimensions (i.e. connectedness, creativity, firmness and flexibility) can be assessed using the Inner Strength Scale (ISS). Exploring attributes of weaker inner strength may yield valuable information about areas to focus on in enhancing a person's inner strength and may ultimately lead to the perception of better health.
Cross-sectional questionnaire survey.
The study is based on responses from 1270 community-dwelling older women aged 65 years and older; these were collected in the year 2010 and describe the situation that still exists today for older women. The questionnaire included the ISS, background characteristics and explanatory variables known to be health threats in ageing. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Poorer mental health was related to weaker inner strength in total and in all the dimensions. Symptoms of depressive disorders and feeling lonely were related to three of the dimensions, except firmness and creativity respectively. Furthermore, poor physical health was associated with the dimensions firmness and flexibility. Other health threats were significantly related to only one of the dimensions, or not associated at all.
Mental ill health has overall the strongest association with weaker inner strength. Longitudinal studies are recommended to confirm the results. However, the ISS does not only estimate inner strength but can also be a tool for discovering where (i.e. dimension) interventions may be most profitable.
Anticholinergic drug use has been associated with a risk of central and peripheral adverse effects. There is a lack of information on anticholinergic drug use in persons with diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate anticholinergic drug use and the association between anticholinergic drug use and self-reported symptoms in older community-dwelling persons with and without diabetes.
The basic population was comprised of Finnish community-dwelling primary care patients aged 65 and older. Persons with diabetes were identified according to the ICD-10 diagnostic codes from electronic patient records. Two controls adjusted by age and gender were selected for each person with diabetes. This cross-sectional study was based on electronic primary care patient records and a structured health questionnaire. The health questionnaire was returned by 430 (81.6%) persons with diabetes and 654 (73.5%) persons without diabetes. Data on prescribed drugs were obtained from the electronic patient records. Anticholinergic drug use was measured according to the Anticholinergic Risk Scale. The presence and strength of anticholinergic symptoms were asked in the health questionnaire.
The prevalence of anticholinergic drug use was 8.9% in the total study cohort. There were no significant differences in anticholinergic drug use between persons with and without diabetes. There was no consistent association between anticholinergic drug use and self-reported symptoms.
There is no difference in anticholinergic drug use in older community-dwelling persons with and without diabetes. Anticholinergic drug use should be considered individually and monitored carefully.
Participation in everyday life and society is generally seen as essential for health-related outcomes and acknowledged to affect older people's well-being.
To investigate if aspects of performance- and togetherness-related participation influence on mortality among very old single living people in Sweden.
ENABLE-AGE Survey Study data involving single-living participants in Sweden (N?=?314, aged 81-91 years), followed over 10 years were used. Multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for demographic and health-related variables were used to analyse specific items influencing mortality.
Participation in performance- or togetherness-oriented activities was found to significantly influence mortality [HR 0.62 (0.44-0.88), P value 0.006, and HR 0.72 (0.53-0.97), P value 0.031, respectively]. Talking to neighbours and following local politics had a protective effect on mortality, speaking to relatives on the phone (CI 1.10-2.02) and performing leisure activities together with others (CI 1.10-2.00) had the opposite influence. That is, those performing the latter activities were significantly more likely to die earlier.
The main contribution of this study is the facet of the results showing that aspects of performance- and togetherness-related participation have a protective effect on mortality in very old age. This is important knowledge for designing health promotion and preventive efforts for the ageing population. Moreover, it constitutes a contribution to the development of instruments capturing aspects of participation influencing on mortality.
In the development of health promotion and preventive efforts the inclusion of participation facets could be considered in favour of potential positive influences on longevity.