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Absolute rather than relative income is a better socioeconomic predictor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Swedish adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292715
Source
Int J Equity Health. 2017 05 04; 16(1):70
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-04-2017
Author
Sten Axelsson Fisk
Juan Merlo
Author Affiliation
Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, CRC, Jan Waldeströms gata, 35, S-205 02, Malmö, Sweden. sten.axelsson_fisk@med.lu.se.
Source
Int J Equity Health. 2017 05 04; 16(1):70
Date
05-04-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Aged
Female
Humans
Incidence
Income - statistics & numerical data
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - economics - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
While psychosocial theory claims that socioeconomic status (SES), acting through social comparisons, has an important influence on susceptibility to disease, materialistic theory says that socioeconomic position (SEP) and related access to material resources matter more. However, the relative role of SEP versus SES in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk has still not been examined.
We investigated the association between SES/SEP and COPD risk among 667 094 older adults, aged 55 to 60, residing in Sweden between 2006 and 2011. Absolute income in five groups by population quintiles depicted SEP and relative income expressed as quintile groups within each absolute income group represented SES. We performed sex-stratified logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios and the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) to compare the discriminatory accuracy of SES and SEP in relation to COPD.
Even though both absolute (SEP) and relative income (SES) were associated with COPD risk, only absolute income (SEP) presented a clear gradient, so the poorest had a three-fold higher COPD risk than the richest individuals. While the AUC for a model including only age was 0.54 and 0.55 when including relative income (SES), it increased to 0.65 when accounting for absolute income (SEP). SEP rather than SES demonstrated a consistent association with COPD.
Our study supports the materialistic theory. Access to material resources seems more relevant to COPD risk than the consequences of low relative income.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28472960 View in PubMed
Less detail

Accessibility to air travel correlates strongly with increasing melanoma incidence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature16510
Source
Melanoma Res. 2006 Feb;16(1):77-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2006
Author
Yolanda Z Agredano
Joanna L Chan
Ranch C Kimball
Alexa B Kimball
Author Affiliation
Department of Dermatology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California, USA.
Source
Melanoma Res. 2006 Feb;16(1):77-81
Date
Feb-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aircraft
Comparative Study
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Holidays - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Income - statistics & numerical data
Melanoma - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Skin Neoplasms - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Sunlight
Travel - statistics & numerical data
Ultraviolet Rays - adverse effects
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
As the cost of air travel has decreased substantially in the USA and Europe over the past few decades, leisure travel to vacation destinations during the winter months has expanded significantly. This trend has probably increased the incidence of significant ultraviolet radiation exposure and sunburn in a broader population who could not previously afford this kind of travel. The purpose of this study was to analyse the correlation between increasing accessibility to air travel and melanoma incidence. This ecological study surveyed air travel patterns and melanoma incidence over the past three decades. Melanoma age-adjusted incidence was obtained from the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 9 Registry Database, 1975-2000, and the Cancer Registry of Norway, 1965-2000. United States mean inflation-adjusted airfare prices for four airports linked to leisure destinations (Miami, Los Angeles, San Diego, Phoenix) were compared with melanoma incidence. Parallel analyses were performed using annual domestic passenger-kilometres and melanoma incidence in Norway. Declining United States leisure-specific airfares corresponded strongly with increasing melanoma incidence (r = 0.96, r = 0.92, P
PubMed ID
16432460 View in PubMed
Less detail

ADHD medication in offspring of immigrants - does the income level of the country of parental origin matter?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293027
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2018 01 08; 18(1):3
Publication Type
Evaluation Studies
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-08-2018
Author
Arzu Arat
Viveca Östberg
Bo Burström
Anders Hjern
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden. arzu.arat@chess.su.se.
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2018 01 08; 18(1):3
Date
01-08-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Evaluation Studies
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - drug therapy - economics - ethnology
Central Nervous System Stimulants - economics - therapeutic use
Child
Developing Countries
Emigrants and Immigrants - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Income - statistics & numerical data
Logistic Models
Male
Odds Ratio
Parents
Registries
Social Class
Sweden
Abstract
Child psychiatric treatment facilities vary greatly worldwide and are virtually non-existent in many low-income countries. One of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood is ADHD, with an estimated prevalence of 3-5% in Sweden. Previous studies have shown a similar prevalence of ADHD in minority and majority children in Sweden and the UK. However, clinical studies demonstrated that children from immigrant families living in Sweden received less psychiatric care than those of native-born parents. We tested the hypothesis that the consumption of child psychiatric care in immigrant families would be determined by the availability of such treatment in the parents' country of origin. Patterns of medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were studied as a proxy for child psychiatric care.
This was a register study of dispensed stimulant medication during 2013-2014 in Swedish national birth cohorts from 1995-2009. The study population, consisting of nearly 1.4 million children, was divided by national income of the parental country of origin and whether the parents were native Swedes, European immigrants, non-European immigrants or a mixture. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios of having been dispensed at least one ADHD drug during 2013, with adjustments for gender, family status indicating whether the child is living with both parents, household income and area of residence.
Having parents born in low-income (OR [95% confidence interval] 0.27 [0.24-0.29]) or middle-income (European: OR 0.23 [0.20-0.26], non-European: OR 0.39 [0.34-0.41]) countries was associated with lower ADHD treatment levels than having parents born in high-income countries (European: OR 0.60 [0.54-0.66], non-European: OR 0.68 [0.59-0.79]), when compared to children of parents born in Sweden. In families with a background in low or middle income countries, there was no significant association between household income and ADHD medication, while in children with Swedish and mixed backgrounds high level of disposable income was associated with lower levels of ADHD medication.
The use of child psychiatric care by immigrant families in Sweden was largely associated with the income level of the country of origin.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29310624 View in PubMed
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Adolescent health and adult labor market outcomes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274880
Source
J Health Econ. 2014 Sep;37:25-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2014
Author
Petter Lundborg
Anton Nilsson
Dan-Olof Rooth
Source
J Health Econ. 2014 Sep;37:25-40
Date
Sep-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent health
Adult
Aged
Employment - statistics & numerical data
Health status
Humans
Income - statistics & numerical data
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Military Personnel
Siblings
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Whereas a large literature has shown the importance of early life health for adult socioeconomic outcomes, there is little evidence on the importance of adolescent health. We contribute to the literature by studying the impact of adolescent health status on adult labor market outcomes using a unique and large-scale dataset covering almost the entire population of Swedish males. We show that most types of major conditions have long-run effects on future outcomes, and that the strongest effects result from mental conditions. Including sibling fixed effects or twin pair fixed effects reduces the magnitudes of the estimates, but they remain substantial.
PubMed ID
24915636 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adolescents from affluent city districts drink more alcohol than others.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278664
Source
Addiction. 2015 Oct;110(10):1595-604
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2015
Author
Willy Pedersen
Anders Bakken
Tilmann von Soest
Source
Addiction. 2015 Oct;110(10):1595-604
Date
Oct-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Alcoholic Intoxication - epidemiology
Alcoholism - epidemiology
Cities
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Income - statistics & numerical data
Linear Models
Male
Multilevel Analysis
Norway - epidemiology
Parents
Religion
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Social Class
Social norms
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Underage Drinking - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To estimate the level of alcohol consumption and problems among adolescents in city districts in Oslo, Norway with different socio-economic composition; to test whether differences in alcohol consumption are related to district differences in socio-demographic characteristics; and to analyse whether such associations remain significant after controlling for individual-level variables.
Cross-sectional survey using multi-level linear regression analyses with individual responses at the lowest level and city-district data at the highest level.
Oslo, Norway.
A total of 6635 secondary school students, in 62 schools, living in 15 different city districts.
Frequency of alcohol consumption and alcohol intoxication; alcohol problems; and individual characteristics such as immigrant status, religious involvement and parental norms with regard to alcohol. Socio-economic indicators in city districts, such as education, income and unemployment, were combined into a district-level socio-economic index (DLSI).
DLSI scores were related positively to alcohol use (r?=?0.31, P?
PubMed ID
26032427 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adult children's socioeconomic positions and their parents' mortality: a comparison of education, occupational class, and income.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265185
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2014 Dec;122:148-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
Jenny Torssander
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2014 Dec;122:148-56
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult Children - statistics & numerical data
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cause of Death
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Income - statistics & numerical data
Male
Occupations - statistics & numerical data
Parents
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Recent research has shown that the parents of well-educated children live longer than do other parents and that this association is only partly confounded by the parent's own socioeconomic position. However, the relationships between other aspects of children's socioeconomic position (e.g., occupational class and economic resources) and parental mortality have not been examined. Using the Swedish Multi-generation Register that connects parents to their children, this paper studies the associations of children's various socioeconomic resources (education, occupation, and income) and parents' mortality. The models are adjusted for a range of parental socioeconomic resources and include the resources of the parents' partners. In addition to all-cause mortality, five causes of death are analyzed separately (circulatory disease mortality, overall cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer). The results show net associations between all included indicators of children's socioeconomic position and parents' mortality risk, with the clearest association for education. Children's education is significantly associated with all of the examined causes of death except prostate cancer. Breast cancer mortality is negatively related to offspring's education but not the mothers' own education. To conclude, children's education seems to be a key factor compared with other dimensions of socioeconomic position in the offspring generation. This finding suggests that explanations linked to behavioral norms or knowledge are more plausible than those linked to access to material resources. However, it is possible that children's education - to a greater degree than class and income - captures unmeasured parental characteristics. The cause-specific analyses imply that future research should investigate whether offspring's socioeconomic position is linked to the likelihood of developing diseases and/or the chances of treating them. A broader family perspective in the description and explanations of social inequalities in health that includes the younger generation may increase our understanding of why these inequalities persist across the life course.
PubMed ID
25441327 View in PubMed
Less detail

Advanced access appointments: Effects on family physician satisfaction, physicians' office income, and emergency department use.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140089
Source
Can Fam Physician. 2010 Oct;56(10):e361-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2010
Author
John C Hudec
Steven MacDougall
Elaine Rankin
Author Affiliation
School of Arts and Social Sciences, Cape Breton University, Sydney, Nova Scotia B1P 6L2. john_hudec@cbu.ca
Source
Can Fam Physician. 2010 Oct;56(10):e361-7
Date
Oct-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Appointments and Schedules
Attitude of Health Personnel
Emergency Service, Hospital - utilization
Family Practice - economics - organization & administration
Health Services Accessibility - classification
Humans
Income - statistics & numerical data
Nova Scotia
Patient satisfaction
Regression Analysis
Abstract
To examine the effects of advanced access (same-day physician appointments) on patient and provider satisfaction and to determine its association with other variables such as physician income and patient emergency department use.
Patient satisfaction survey and semistructured interviews with physicians and support staff; analysis of physician medical insurance billings and patient emergency department visits.
Cape Breton, NS.
Patients, physicians, and support staff of 3 comparable family physician practices that had not implemented advanced access and an established advanced access practice.
Self-reported provider and patient satisfaction, physician office income, and patients' emergency department use.
The key benefits of implementation of advanced access were an increase in provider and patient satisfaction levels, same or greater physician office income, and fewer less urgent (triage level 4) and nonurgent (triage level 5) emergency department visits by patients.
Currently within the Central Cape Breton Region, 33% of patients wait 4 or more days for urgent appointments. Findings from this study can be used to enhance primary care physician practice redesign. This research supports many benefits of transitioning to an advanced access model of patient booking.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20944024 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adverse childhood experiences and the cardiovascular health of children: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105586
Source
BMC Pediatr. 2013;13:208
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Chelsea Pretty
Deborah D O'Leary
John Cairney
Terrance J Wade
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, Brock University, St Catharines ON, Canada. twade@brocku.ca.
Source
BMC Pediatr. 2013;13:208
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Blood pressure
Body mass index
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Disease Susceptibility
Educational Status
Family Characteristics
Family Conflict
Female
Heart rate
Humans
Hypertension - epidemiology - genetics
Income - statistics & numerical data
Life Change Events
Male
Obesity - epidemiology
Ontario - epidemiology
Risk factors
Sampling Studies
Socioeconomic Factors
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology
Waist Circumference
Abstract
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as abuse, household dysfunction, and neglect, have been shown to increase adults' risk of developing chronic conditions and risk factors for chronic conditions, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Much less work has investigated the effect of ACEs on children's physical health status that may lead to adult chronic health conditions. Therefore, the present study examined the relationship between ACEs and early childhood risk factors for adult cardiovascular disease.
1 234 grade six to eight students participated in school-based data collection, which included resting measures of blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Parents of these children completed an inventory of ACEs taken from the Childhood Trust Events Survey. Linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between experiencing more than 4 ACEs experienced, systolic BP, HR, BMI and WC. In additional analysis, ACEs were assessed ordinally in their relationship with systolic BP, HR, and BMI as well as clinical obesity and hypertension status.
After adjustment for family education, income, age, sex, physical activity, and parental history of hypertension, and WC for HR models, four or more ACEs had a significant effect on HR (b = 1.8 bpm, 95% CI (0.1-3.6)) BMI (b =1.1 kg/m2, 95% CI (0.5-1.8)), and WC (b = 3.6 cm, 95% CI (1.8-5.3)). A dose-response relationship between ACE accumulation and both BMI and WC was also found to be significant. Furthermore, accumulation of 4 or more ACEs was significantly associated with clinical obesity (95th percentile), after controlling for the aforementioned covariates.
In a community sample of grade six to eight children, accumulation of 4 or more ACEs significantly increased BMI, WC and resting HR. Therefore, risk factors related to reported associations between ACEs and cardiovascular outcomes among adults are identifiable in childhood suggesting earlier interventions to reduce CVD risk are required.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24344611 View in PubMed
Less detail

The affordability of a nutritious diet for households on welfare in Toronto.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190784
Source
Can J Public Health. 2002 Jan-Feb;93(1):36-40
Publication Type
Article
Author
Nicholas Vozoris
Barbara Davis
Valerie Tarasuk
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3E2.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2002 Jan-Feb;93(1):36-40
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Budgets
Diet - economics
Family Characteristics
Financing, Personal
Humans
Income - statistics & numerical data
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Ontario
Poverty
Social Welfare - economics
Urban Population
Abstract
This study assesses the affordability of a nutritious diet for households in Toronto that are supported by welfare.
For three hypothetical households, welfare incomes were compared to the monthly costs for food, shelter, and other essential expenditures in Toronto.
If households lived in market rental accommodation, average monthly incomes were insufficient to cover expenses for the single-person household and two-parent family, and barely adequate for the single-parent family considered in this study. However, the single-parent family's actual income fell below expenses for six months of the year. For households with children, the relative inadequacy of welfare increased as children grew older. Living in rent-geared-to-income housing afforded substantial financial advantage, but the welfare income of single-person households was still insufficient to meet basic needs.
These findings indicate discrepancies between welfare incomes and costs of basic needs, which may explain the vulnerability of welfare recipients to food insecurity.
PubMed ID
11925698 View in PubMed
Less detail

Affordability of a nutritious diet for income assistance recipients in Nova Scotia (2002-2010).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121472
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 May-Jun;103(3):183-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Patricia L Williams
Cynthia G Watt
Michelle Amero
Barbara J Anderson
Ilya Blum
Rebecca Green-LaPierre
Christine P Johnson
Debra E Reimer
Author Affiliation
Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, NS. patty.williams@msvu.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 May-Jun;103(3):183-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Diet - economics
Female
Food Supply - economics
Humans
Income - statistics & numerical data
Male
Nova Scotia - epidemiology
Nutrition Policy
Poverty - economics
Social Welfare - economics
Abstract
This study assessed the affordability of a basic nutritious diet for selected household types relying on income assistance (IA) by comparing potential incomes to the costs of the National Nutritious Food Basket (NNFB) and other essential expenditures in Nova Scotia from 2002 to 2010, and examined the adequacy of IA allowances during this time period.
The cost of the NNFB was surveyed across a random sample of grocery stores in NS during five time periods: 2002, 2004/05, 2007, 2008 and 2010, and was factored into affordability scenarios for three household types relying on IA: a family of four, a lone mother with three children, and a lone male. Essential monthly expenses were deducted from total net income to determine if adequate funds remained for the NNFB.
For each time period examined, the findings demonstrated that all household types faced a significant monthly deficit if they purchased a basic nutritious diet. In each household scenario, the potential monthly deficits increased from 2002 to 2010, ranging from $112 in 2002 for a lone mother with three children to $523 in 2010 for a lone male.
Despite increases in allowances, these findings suggest that the risk of food insecurity has increased for IA-dependent households in NS. To address this public health challenge, public health practitioners must advocate for integrated, progressive and sustainable social welfare policies that ensure that individuals and families relying on IA have adequate income and other supports to meet their basic needs, including access to a healthy diet.
PubMed ID
22905636 View in PubMed
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