To define a grade in the Aesthetic Component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) that would differentiate between esthetically acceptable and unacceptable occlusions and that would also be both subjectively and objectively meaningful.
Dental appearance and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need were analyzed in a group of Finnish young adults (171 males, 263 females, age range 16-25 years). Subjective data were gathered using a questionnaire, and the respondents were requested to score their dental appearance on a visual analog type 10-grade scale. Professional assessment of dental appearance was performed by two orthodontists using the AC of the IOTN. The cutoff value between esthetically acceptable and unacceptable occlusions was defined using receiver operating characteristic curves.
Sixty-six percent of orthodontically treated and 74% of the untreated respondents were satisfied with their own dental appearance. Every third respondent reported one or more disturbing traits in their dentition. The most frequently expressed reason for dissatisfaction was crowding; girls expressed dissatisfaction more often than boys did (P = .005). A self-perceived treatment need was reported infrequently by 8% of orthodontically treated and 6% of untreated respondents. In the logistic regression analysis, self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment was the only significant factor explaining dissatisfaction with own dental esthetics. On the applied scales, grades 1 and 2 fulfilled the criteria for satisfactory dental esthetics.
The results suggest that the AC grade 3 could serve as a cutoff value between esthetically acceptable and unacceptable occlusions.
During the 1970s dentists reported an increasing prevalence of a "new" type of enamel disturbance.The disturbance was very specific, with areas of demarcated hypomineralised enamel, and was mostly found in permanent first molars and incisors. Several studies have tried to reveal the aetiology behind the enamel disturbance but sofar no clear factors correlated have been found. The aim of the present study was to evaluate aetiological factors to severe demarcated opacities (SDO) in first permanent molars in a large cohort of children enrolled in the "All Babies in Southeast Sweden" (ABIS) project. ABIS is a prospective study of all children in five Swedish counties born between Oct 1, 1997 and Oct 1, 1999, in all about 17,000 children.They have been followed from birth with recording of a large number of factors on nutrition, diseases, medication, infections, social situation etc. With help from 89 Public Dental Service clinics in the same area preliminary examinations of the children, born between Oct 1,1997 and Oct 1,1999, reported 595 children with severe demarcated opacities (SDO) in first molars.These children and a randomly selected age matched group of 1,200 children were further invited to be examined by specialists in paediatric dentistry. At these examinations 224 severe cases were identified as well as 253 children completely without enamel disturbances among children registered in ABIS.These two groups were analysed according to any correlation between SDO and variables in the ABIS databank. The analyses showed no association between SDO and pre-, peri-, and neonatal data. However, we found a positive association between SDO and breastfeeding for more than 6 months (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.2), late introduction of gruel (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-2.9), and late introduction of infant formula (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.9). A combination of these three variables increased the risk to develop SDO by more than five times (OR 5.1; 95% CI 1.6-15.7). No significant associations were found to other environmental, developmental, or medical factors. We conclude that nutritional conditions during first 6 months of life may influence the risk to develop severe demarcated opacities in first permanent molars.
Before the 1960s, tooth-specific caries risk was reported to be highest at 2 to 4 years after eruption. We studied the tooth-specific caries risk in three contemporary age cohorts in Finland. All together, 4072 boys and girls were followed annually from age 6 to age 18+ years in three age cohorts born in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. We used a survival model and Bayesian inferential methods in the statistical analyses to establish the secular changes during this period. The analysis was based on the caries risk in individual teeth as a function of tooth age instead of summary measures, such as DMFS values. Our first finding was a marked overall decrease of caries. Moreover, analyses of the 1960 and 1970 cohorts revealed that the risk in molar teeth was highest immediately after eruption; in the youngest cohort, however, the risks of individual teeth were so low that no such dependencies on tooth age could be established.
Facial asymmetry present only on crying has been described as a separate entity and termed asymmetric crying facies. The cause of the facial asymmetry in this disorder is congenital absence or hypoplasia of the depressor anguli oris muscle at the corner of the mouth. This defect is associated at times with major congenital anomalies, most commonly in the cardiovascular system. Chromosome 22q11 microdeletions in cases with ACF have been reported. We report a newborn infant who had ACF associated with a couple of primary mandibular central incisor teeth and chromosome 22q11 microdeletion. This clinical sign in association with ACF has not been previously described.
This prospective, in vivo study compared bond failure and enamel decalcification with a cyanoacrylate bracket bonding system (SmartBond, Gestenco International, Gothenburg, Sweden) and a traditional light-cured composite system (Light Bond, Reliance Orthodontic Products, Itasca, Ill). A total of 327 teeth were evaluated after a period of 12 to 14 months; 163 experimental teeth were bonded with the cyanoacrylate bonding system, and 164 control teeth were bonded with the light-cured composite resin. All teeth were evaluated for breakage (bond failure). The average percentage of bracket failures with cyanoacrylate was 55.6% compared with 11.3% with composite resin (P
To longitudinally follow and analyse caries prevalence and development in primary dentition in Swedish preschool children from 3 to 6 years of age.
A longitudinal clinical study.
Three hundred 3-year-old children in the Public Dental Service were consecutively included. The children underwent annual clinical examinations at 3, 4, 5 and 6 years of age, performed by four calibrated dentists in clinical settings. Initial (d1-2) and manifest (d3-5) lesions were registered at surface and tooth level. Radiographs were taken when indicated and possible.
Chi-squared test was used for group comparisons. Friedman's test, Wilcoxon non-parametric test and logistic regression analyses explored caries development over the years.
The parents of 271 children agreed to their children participating in the study (total dropout rate at 6 years, 10.3%). At baseline, 27.3% of the children had carious lesions (d1-5 mean 0.98, SD ± 2.44), and only 50.6% of the children were totally caries-free at 6 years (d1-5 mean 1.88, SD ± 2.81). Initial carious lesions made up the greater share at all ages. The greater part of the caries increment occurred between 3 and 4 years of age (p
Despite differences in the dental health care services and the recording and reporting systems, a consistent and similar decline in dental caries is evident for Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden during the last two decades. Iceland has experienced a later onset but a steeper decline in dental caries than the other Nordic countries. Public reports demonstrate that in 1991/92 23-49 per cent of the 12-year-old children were caries-free and the mean tooth prevalence was 1.2-2.5 DMFT. Fluoride in various forms has been instrumental in these changes, and public dental health programmes appear to have played an important role, at least in the initiation of the decline. Caries has been slowed down and delayed, but has not been eradicated.
To determine changes in the prevalence of dental fluorosis, and in perceptions of aesthetic concerns due to dental fluorosis after water fluoridation ceased.
Schoolchildren in second and third grades were examined in 1993-94, 1996-97 and 2002-03 to determine changes in the prevalence of dental fluorosis following fluoridation cessation of the public water supplies in 1992. The Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI) was used to quantify dental fluorosis. Perceptions of aesthetics were assessed by questionnaires which were sent home to parents. Residence and dental histories were confirmed on all children to determine the extent of exposure to all types of fluorides. Comparisons between the three surveys were used to establish the influence of fluoridated water and other fluoride sources on the occurrence and severity of dental fluorosis. Aesthetic ratings from parents were used to assess the aesthetic conditions of maxillary anterior teeth across the three surveys.
When fluoride was removed from the water supply in 1992, the prevalence and severity of TFI scores decreased significantly from the 1993-94 survey cycle when compared with the 1996-97 and 2002-03 survey cycles. The use of fluoride supplements and fluoride dentifrice also decreased during this study period. Analyses were unable to determine the influence of these different fluoride exposures on the changes in TFI scores over time. Comparisons of aesthetic ratings from parents between survey cycles failed to show any significant differences.
The dentofacial morphology of Chinese is different from Caucasians. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the skeletal and dental changes contributing to the sagittal correction in group of consecutive Chinese children who were treated with the Herbst appliance. A comparison was made between 14 Chinese and 14 Swedish subjects who all had Herbst appliance treatment. All subjects were corrected from the Class II division 1 malocclusion to an overcorrected Class I or Class III dental relationship within a 6-8 month period. Lateral cephalograms taken before and immediately after the Herbst treatment were analysed. In general, the skeletal and dental changes during treatment were comparable between both ethnic groups. However, individual variations within the two groups were wide. It can be concluded that the Herbst appliance was equally successful in Southern Chinese children and similar treatment changes as those achieved in Swedish children could be found.