The aim of the study was to compare the appropriateness of different obesity indicators in the assessment of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.
The study cohort included 11,510 Finnish men and women aged 25 to 64 year at baseline who participated in a cardiovascular disease risk factor survey in 1987 or 1992. At baseline, data on smoking and diabetes were recorded, blood pressure. body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were measured, and serum total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were determined. A follow-up was done to the end of 1997. Death or diagnosed event from CHD was used as an outcome variable.
At baseline, BMI was the best explaining variable for systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and for total cholesterol, whereas WC was the best explaining variable for HDL cholesterol, among both men and women. During the follow-up, WHR was the best predictor of CHD incidence. However, after the adjustment for other CHD risk factors none of the obesity indicators remained statistically significant. In both sexes, BMI was a statistically significant predictor of CHD incidence among subjects with DBP lower than the mean. Among men, a similar interaction was seen between DBP and WC.
WHR was the best predictor of CHD incidence in our data. Abdominal obesity has an effect on CHD incidence independently of general obesity.
Cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus and central obesity, have been associated with Parkinson disease (PD), but data on blood pressure and PD are lacking. We sought to examine the association of blood pressure and hypertension with the risk of PD among men and women. This study consisted of 7 surveys (1972-2002) on representative samples of the general population in Finland (National FINRISK Study). A total number of 59 540 participants (age 25 to 74 years; 51.8% women) who were free of PD and stroke at baseline were prospectively followed until December 31, 2006, to identify incident PD cases using the National Social Insurance Register database. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to estimate the hazard ratio of PD associated with blood pressure. During a mean follow-up period of 18.8 years (SD: 10.2 years), 423 men and 371 women were ascertained to have developed PD. In women, compared with normotensive subjects (
The association of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR-gamma2 gene with the incidence of type 2 diabetes was investigated in 522 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) participating in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Subjects were randomized to either an intensive diet and exercise group or a control group. By 3 years of intervention, the odds ratio of the development of type 2 diabetes for subjects with the Ala12 allele was 2.11-fold compared with that for subjects with the Pro12Pro genotype (95% CI 1.20-3.72). The risk for type 2 diabetes increased also in subjects who gained weight or belonged to the control group. In the intervention group, subjects with the Ala12Ala genotype lost more weight during the follow-up than subjects with other genotypes (Pro12Pro vs. Ala12Ala P = 0.043), and none of subjects with the Ala12Ala genotype developed type 2 diabetes in this group. In conclusion, the Ala12 allele may predispose to the development of type 2 diabetes in obese subjects with IGT. However, beneficial changes in diet, increases in physical activity, and weight loss may reverse, to some extent, the diabetogenic impact of the Ala12 allele, possibly due to an improved insulin sensitivity.
Few studies have suggested that elevated blood pressure might be associated with increased risk of lung cancer and that this association might vary according to smoking status. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of blood pressure and its possible interaction with smoking on lung cancer incidence in hypertensive patients. Lung cancer incidence was determined for 7,908 men enrolled in the hypertension register of the North Karelia Project between 1972 and 1988 by record linkage to the nationwide Finnish Cancer Registry. In a Cox regression model, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significant predictors of lung cancer, with a 10% increase in risk per 10-mmHg increment in blood pressure. In smokers, the age-adjusted hazard ratio associated with a 10-mmHg increment in diastolic blood pressure was 1.17 (95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.29), and in nonsmokers it was 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.80, 1.16). For systolic blood pressure, these hazard ratios were 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.17) for smokers and 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.14) for nonsmokers. These findings suggest that high blood pressure levels are associated with increased risk of lung cancer in smoking, hypertensive men.
We evaluated how body fat percentage, measured by a portable near-infrared interactance (NIR) device predicts cardiovascular (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and ischemic stroke events in a prospective population-based survey. The study population consisted of 2,842 men and 3,196 women, who participated in the FINRISK'92 survey. Obesity was assessed with BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage measured with an NIR. Mean length of follow-up was 9 years and 3 months. In Cox proportional hazards regression analyses for men, BMI, waist circumference, and WHR as well as body fat percentage were predictors of a CVD event when adjusted for age and for major risk factors. Hazard ratio (HR) per 1 s.d. was 1.27 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.48) for body fat percentage, 1.30 (1.16-1.46) for BMI, and 1.31 (1.16-1.50) for waist circumference. Among women, the body fat lost its predictive power in a fully adjusted model. Body fat percentage, BMI, waist circumference, and WHR were predictors of a CHD event both among men and women, whereas body fat percentage did not predict ischemic stroke among either gender. We observed that body fat percentage measured by an NIR device was a significant predictor of CVD and CHD events among men and women, but in our population-based survey, it did not provide any additional predictive power over and above the simpler measures, such as BMI or WHR.
The relation between body mass index (BMI) and risk of cancer incidence is controversial. Cancer incidence during 1972-2008 in relation to BMI was investigated in a prospective cohort of 54,725 Finns aged 24-74 years and free of cancer at enrollment. Over a mean follow-up of 20.6 years, 8,429 (15.4%) incident cancers were recorded, 4,208 (49.9%) from men. Both parametric and nonparametric approaches were used to evaluate the shape of the relationship between BMI and incidence of cancer. BMI had a linear positive association with incidence of cancers of the colon, liver, kidney, bladder and all sites combined in men, and of cancers of the stomach, colon, gallbladder and ovary in women, an inverse association with incidence of cancers of the lung in men and the lung and breast in women, a J-shaped association with incidence of all cancers combined in women. High BMI in women was associated with an increased overall cancer risk in never smokers but a reduced risk in smokers. Elevated BMI was associated with an increased risk of incidence of cancers of certain sites.
Diabetes and cancer are common diseases both with enormous impact on health burden globally. The increased risk of several types of cancer among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus has been indicated repeatedly. This study aimed at exploring and describing the association between type 2 diabetes and cancer incidence. A cohort of 428,326 people with type 2 diabetes was identified from the Finnish National Diabetes Register and followed up through a register linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry for cancer incidence during 1988-2014. A total of 74,063 cases of cancer occurred in this cohort in 4.48 million person-years. This accounted for 16% more than the expected cancer incidence in the Finnish general population; the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-1.16). There was a statistically significant excess of cancers of lip (SIR?=?1.40, CI?=?1.28-1.53), liver (SIR?=?2.44, CI?=?2.35-2.53), pancreas (SIR?=?1.75, CI?=?1.70-1.79), stomach (SIR?=?1.22, CI?=?1.18-1.26), colon (SIR?=?1.22, CI?=?1.19-1.25), gallbladder and bile ducts (SIR?=?1.29, CI?=?1.21-1.36), non-melanoma skin (SIR?=?1.18, CI?=?1.15-1.22), kidney (SIR?=?1.42, CI?=?1.37-1.47), bladder (SIR?=?1.17, CI?=?1.13-1.21), and thyroid (SIR?=?1.22, CI?=?1.12-1.31). There was a small statistically significant decrease in prostate cancer incidence (SIR?=?0.95, CI?=?0.93-0.96). This study showed an association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and the incidence of cancer at numerous sites in the Finnish population.
Several prospective studies have assessed the association between coffee consumption and Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, but the results are inconsistent. We examined the association of coffee and tea consumption with the risk of incident PD among 29,335 Finnish subjects aged 25 to 74 years without a history of PD at baseline. During a mean follow-up of 12.9 years, 102 men and 98 women developed an incident PD. The multivariate-adjusted (age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, education, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, alcohol and tea consumption, and history of diabetes) hazard ratios (HRs) of PD associated with the amount of coffee consumed daily (0, 1-4, and > or = 5 cups) were 1.00, 0.55, and 0.41 (P for trend = 0.063) in men, 1.00, 0.50, and 0.39 (P for trend = 0.073) in women, and 1.00, 0.53, and 0.40 (P for trend = 0.005) in men and women combined (adjusted also for sex), respectively. In both sexes combined, the multivariate-adjusted HRs of PD for subjects drinking > or = 3 cups of tea daily compared with tea nondrinkers was 0.41 (95% CI 0.20-0.83). These results suggest that coffee drinking is associated with a lower risk of PD. More tea drinking is associated with a lower risk of PD.
Only few prospective studies have examined the association between coffee consumption and risk of gastric and pancreatic cancer. This study is designed to evaluate this relationship among Finns, whose coffee consumption is the highest in the world. A total of 60,041 Finnish men and women who were 26-74 years of age and without history of any cancer at baseline were included in the present analyses. Coffee consumption and other study parameters were determined at baseline using standardized measurements. Participants were prospectively followed up for onset of gastric and/or pancreatic cancer, emigration, death or until June 30, 2006. During a mean follow-up period of 18 years, 299 cases of gastric cancer and 235 cases of pancreatic cancer were found. There was a nonsignificant inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of gastric cancer among men but not in the women. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of stomach and pancreatic cancer incidence for = 10 cups of coffee per day compared with nondrinkers were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.40-1.41) (P for trend = 0.19) and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.38-1.76) (P for trend = 0.95) for the combined population of men and women, respectively. We did not find a significant association between coffee consumption and the risk of gastric and/or pancreatic cancers.
Only a few studies of coffee consumption and diabetes mellitus (DM) have been reported, even though coffee is the most consumed beverage in the world.
To determine the relationship between coffee consumption and the incidence of type 2 DM among Finnish individuals, who have the highest coffee consumption in the world.
A prospective study from combined surveys conducted in 1982, 1987, and 1992 of 6974 Finnish men and 7655 women aged 35 to 64 years without history of stroke, coronary heart disease, or DM at baseline, with 175 682 person-years of follow-up. Coffee consumption and other study parameters were determined at baseline using standardized measurements.
Hazard ratios (HRs) for the incidence of type 2 DM were estimated for different levels of daily coffee consumption.
During a mean follow-up of 12 years, there were 381 incident cases of type 2 DM. After adjustment for confounding factors (age, study year, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, education, occupational, commuting and leisure-time physical activity, alcohol and tea consumption, and smoking), the HRs of DM associated with the amount of coffee consumed daily (0-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-9, > or =10 cups) were 1.00, 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-1.05), 0.39 (95% CI, 0.25-0.60), 0.39 (95% CI, 0.20-0.74), and 0.21 (95% CI, 0.06-0.69) (P for trend