Dysfunction in affect regulation is a prominent feature that grossly impairs behavioural and interpersonal domains of experience and underlies a great deal of the psychopathology in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, no study has yet been published that evaluates the psychometric properties of the translated Danish version of self-report measures sensitive to the different aspects and dimensions of dysfunction in affect regulation prevalent in BPD.
This study comprised a group of women diagnosed with BPD (n = 29) and a comparison group of healthy subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures.
Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate components of affect regulation by self-report measures than the comparison group of healthy subjects. Our results also provided partial support for the psychometric appropriateness and clinical relevance of the translated Danish version of affect regulation measures.
The normative reference range indicated by our results makes the measures useful as a practical assessment tool.
Previous studies have identified phenotypic associations between Cloninger's temperament dimensions and the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. However the underlying aetiology of these associations remains unclear. We investigate the extent to which genetic and environmental influences contribute to the relationship between temperament and ADHD, examining the ADHD symptoms of inattention (IA) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) separately. Participants were 886 adult twin pairs aged 19-20 years. ADHD symptoms of IA and HI were measured using a DSM-IV based rating scale. Temperament was measured using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), across four dimensions: novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD) and persistence (PS). The twin method was used to decompose phenotypic variance/covariance among these variables into genetic and environmental components. We found that NS was genetically associated with both ADHD symptom dimensions (IA and HI), but that HA was genetically associated with IA only. There was also some evidence of genetic association between PS, IA and HI. These findings suggest that unique profiles of temperament are genetically related to the two ADHD symptom dimensions in adults. Further work is now needed to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie both the combined and separate symptom factor domains of ADHD.
To examine how adolescents' inattentive behaviour, together with parental smoking patterns, predicts smoking initiation by age 14. DESIGN, SETTINGS: A prospective, longitudinal study: baseline at ages 11-12, follow-up at age 14. A population-based sample of Finnish twins, born 1983-1987, with parents and classroom teachers as additional informants. Two groups were formed, allocating the co-twins of each family into separate groups: the study sample and a replication sample.
Twin individuals (n = 4552), aged 11-12 at baseline and 14 (average 14.04 years) at follow-up.
At baseline, inattentiveness was assessed with the Multidimensional Peer Nomination Inventory (MPNI, Teacher Form) and parental smoking with individual questionnaires completed by each twins' parents; at the age 14 follow-up, adolescent smoking was assessed with a self-report questionnaire.
At age 14, 57% reported never having smoked, 34% had experimented with cigarettes and 9% were current smokers. Inattentiveness and parental smoking additively predicted both experimental and current smoking in adolescence. The effects were independent of each other.
The risk related to inattentiveness itself is high, but in combination with the effects of parental smoking, the probability of current smoking can rise as high as 38%, compared with 5% without these two risk factors. For prevention purposes, parental commitment to non-smoking should be emphasized.