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Immune parameters associated with mortality in the elderly are context-dependent: lessons from Sweden, Holland and Belgium.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301795
Source
Biogerontology. 2018 12; 19(6):537-545
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2018
Author
Graham Pawelec
Author Affiliation
Second Department of Internal Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. graham.pawelec@uni-tuebingen.de.
Source
Biogerontology. 2018 12; 19(6):537-545
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Aged, 80 and over
B-Lymphocytes - immunology
Belgium - epidemiology
CD4-CD8 Ratio
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes - immunology
Cohort Studies
Cytomegalovirus Infections - immunology
Female
Humans
Immunosenescence - immunology
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mortality - trends
Netherlands - epidemiology
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The pioneering Swedish OCTO/NONA-Immune longitudinal studies led by Anders Wikby in Jönköping in the 1990s established a cluster of simple baseline immune parameters associated with excess mortality in 85 year-old non-institutionalized individuals over 2, 4 and 6-year follow-up. We dubbed this cluster the "Immune Risk Profile" (IRP) consisting of poor proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to T cell mitogens, accumulations of CD8+ CD28- T-cells resulting in an inverted CD4:8 ratio, decreased amounts of B-cells, and seropositivity for Cytomegalovirus (CMV). The concept of the IRP has since been applied by others to many different populations in different circumstances and at different ages, but in general without specifically establishing whether the same risk factors were relevant in the tested subjects. However, our own later studies showed that risk factors in aged populations from The Netherlands and Belgium were markedly different, indicating that the IRP cannot simply be transferred between populations. Moreover, there was a striking sex difference in the Belgian study, which was the only one large enough to include sufficient numbers of old men. The reasons for these marked differences between populations which one might have assumed a priori to be quite similar to one another are not clear, and many candidates can be speculated upon, but the important lesson is that there is a marked context-dependency of immune biomarkers of ageing, suggesting that IRPs cannot be assumed to be identical in different populations.
PubMed ID
29185165 View in PubMed
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Insights into mortality patterns and causes of death through a process point of view model.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286543
Source
Biogerontology. 2017 Feb;18(1):149-170
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2017
Author
James J Anderson
Ting Li
David J Sharrow
Source
Biogerontology. 2017 Feb;18(1):149-170
Date
Feb-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Animals
Cause of Death
Computer simulation
Death
Humans
Immunity, Innate - immunology
Immunosenescence - immunology
Models, Immunological
Models, Statistical
Morals
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Process point of view (POV) models of mortality, such as the Strehler-Mildvan and stochastic vitality models, represent death in terms of the loss of survival capacity through challenges and dissipation. Drawing on hallmarks of aging, we link these concepts to candidate biological mechanisms through a framework that defines death as challenges to vitality where distal factors defined the age-evolution of vitality and proximal factors define the probability distribution of challenges. To illustrate the process POV, we hypothesize that the immune system is a mortality nexus, characterized by two vitality streams: increasing vitality representing immune system development and immunosenescence representing vitality dissipation. Proximal challenges define three mortality partitions: juvenile and adult extrinsic mortalities and intrinsic adult mortality. Model parameters, generated from Swedish mortality data (1751-2010), exhibit biologically meaningful correspondences to economic, health and cause-of-death patterns. The model characterizes the twentieth century epidemiological transition mainly as a reduction in extrinsic mortality resulting from a shift from high magnitude disease challenges on individuals at all vitality levels to low magnitude stress challenges on low vitality individuals. Of secondary importance, intrinsic mortality was described by a gradual reduction in the rate of loss of vitality presumably resulting from reduction in the rate of immunosenescence. Extensions and limitations of a distal/proximal framework for characterizing more explicit causes of death, e.g. the young adult mortality hump or cancer in old age are discussed.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27885527 View in PubMed
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