The differences between the lipid profiles of male and female patients and the effect of plasma lipids on the extent of coronary artery disease were evaluated in 122 angiographically assessed coronary artery disease patients (95 males and 27 females) and 60 controls. Both male and female patients had lower HDL-cholesterol and higher total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol and VLDL-triglyceride concentrations than the controls. The VLDL lipid values did not differ significantly between the male patients with different extent of CAD, whereas the VLDL lipid values of female patients tended to increase with an increasing severity of CAD. High Lp(a) (> or = 35 mg/dl) values were more prevalent in patients with > 50% coronary stenosis compared to patients with
The main aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the occurrence of hypothyroidism among Finnish women with infertility. For this purpose, the records of 335 women presenting for the first time with infertility at the outpatient clinic of reproductive endocrinology at Turku University Central Hospital during a 3-year period (January 1992 to December 1994) were reviewed. Due to missing data, 36 women were excluded from the analysis. Thyroid function was screened by measuring serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in conjunction with serum prolactin using immunoradiometric assays. Prior to enrolment in the infertility examinations, ten out of 299 women had used thyroxine substitution for primary hypothyroidism. In the TSH screening test, 12 women (4%) exhibited elevated serum TSH levels ranging from 5.7 to 32 mU/l. Three of these cases were previously diagnosed with hypothyroidism and were using an inadequate dose of thyroxine. The prevalence of abnormal TSH levels was highest in the ovulatory dysfunction (6.3%) and unknown infertility (4.8%) groups and lowest in the tubal infertility (2.6%) and male infertility (1.5%) groups, although no statistically significant differences between the groups were observed. Oligo/amenorrhea was present in 101 (34%) women in the whole study population and in eight (67%, p
OBJECTIVE: To develop a new tumor marker immunoradiometric assay and to evaluate its preliminary clinical application. METHODS: With monoclonal antibodies Ma552 and Ma695 from Sweden, a sandwich immunoradiometric assay was developed with Ma552 as catching antibody and Ma695 as tracer. The Ma552 was coated on polystyrene beads, and Ma695 was labeled with 125-I. The reaction was one step at room temperature. RESULTS: Bmax/B0 of the standard curve was 82. The sensitivity of this assay was 0.3 u/ml, CV within assay and CV between assays were 8% and 10%, respectively. Serum level of CA 15-3 in 50 normal women was 11.3 +/- 3.9 u/ml with a false positive rate of 0% based on the cut-off value of 30 U/ml. In 40 patients with benign breast diseases the serum level was 9.6 +/- 5.8 u/ml with a false positive rate of 0%. In 65 cases of breast cancers in different stages it was 88.4 +/- 159.6 u/ml before treatments with a total positive detection rate of 50.8%. Metastases, especially, bone metastases caused significant serum CA15-3 elevation, with 100% positive rate(n = 9). The positive rate of recurrences of beast cancers was 80% (n = 5). CONCLUSION: The newly established immunoradiometric assay of CA15-3 is highly useful in the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and monitoring of metastases and recurrences of breast cancer, and is superior to CEA.
Twenty-four patients with mild to moderate primary hyperparathyroidism were followed for an average of 2.45 years with serial determinations of serum ionized calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH). For the entire group serum ionized calcium remained stable, whereas serum PTH increased significantly. Eleven patients (group 1) demonstrated a significant increase in PTH with time. The remaining 13 patients formed group 2. Comparison of the changes (%) in each subgroup showed a small but significant increase in serum ionized calcium of 2.6% with time in group 1, while serum PTH increased by 78%. In group 2 serum ionized calcium remained stable whereas PTH increased modestly by 22%. Serum concentrations of creatinine were stable throughout the follow-up period in both groups. Despite the greater precision of serum ionized calcium, measurements of intact PTH are evidently more sensitive than measurements of serum ionized calcium for the detection of progression in primary hyperparathyroidism.
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the differences between natriuretic peptides used to evaluate elderly patients with heart failure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the information and the power to predict cardiovascular mortality derived from an analysis of cardiac natriuretic peptides from the same study population and at the same time. METHODS AND RESULTS: In all, 415 elderly patients (age 65-82 years) in primary health care were evaluated and followed for 6 years. All patients had symptoms of heart failure and were examined by a cardiologist. An electrocardiogram and chest x-rays were taken, and the systolic and diastolic functions were assessed using Doppler echocardiography. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal proBNP, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and N-terminal proANP were analyzed. All 4 peptides were associated with age, and only 1 of them showed any gender difference. Three of the 4 peptides (not ANP) provided important information for identifying patients with impaired systolic function and diastolic dysfunction (pseudonormal or restrictive filling pattern), and for assessing the risk of cardiovascular death. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac natriuretic peptides are useful tools for evaluating elderly patients with heart failure. Three of the 4 peptides were very similar. ANP exhibits inferior properties and cannot be recommended in clinical practice.
Esophageal carcinoma is the seventh most common cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. In Sweden, approximately 400 new esophageal carcinomas are diagnosed yearly. Cytokeratins (CK) are specific for epithelial cells and the expression profile usually remains unchanged even when the epithelium undergoes malignant transformation. In the present study, MonoTotal, a newly developed RIA-assay detecting circulating CK 8, 18 and 19 fragments, was investigated in sera from patients with esophageal carcinoma. Serum samples from 40 patients with esophageal carcinoma were collected. The median value of circulating CK 8, 18 and 19 measured with MonoTotal was 378 U/L (range 53-6843) and with regard to the defined cut-off (
This study included 328 cases (106 with bladder cancer, 152 with non-malignant urinary tract diseases and 70 healthy controls). Serum TPA was determined using the Prolifigen TPA IRMA kit supplied by AB Sangtec Medical, Bromma, Sweden and serum TPS was determined using the TPS IRMA kit supplied by Beki Diagnostics AB, Bromma, Sweden. The results of this study revealed that serum TPA had better sensitivity than serum TPS while no marked difference was found in the false-positivity rates in the non-malignant urinary tract diseases. A correlation coefficient of 0.83 was found between serum TPA and TPS. No relation was found between either TPA or TPS and histopathological stage, grade or association of the tumor with bilharziasis. As regards the histopathological type of the tumor, serum TPS was slightly higher in squamous cell than transitional cell carcinoma but TPA showed no difference. In the follow-up of bladder cancer patients after surgery both TPA and TPS showed an excellent concordance with the clinical state of the patients. In conclusion, TPS does not seem to be an optimal test in Egyptian patients with bladder cancer but serial determinations of one of the two markers can be used in the follow-up of these patients after surgery.
Estimation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels is important in the management of metabolic bone disorders. Here we describe a simple, sensitive and specific second generation immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) to detect intact PTH levels using different solid phase matrices. Different methods for immobilization of antibodies have also been evaluated.
Experiments were carried out with physical adsorption of antibodies, covalent coupling using 2 per cent glutaraldehyde and N,N`carbonyldiimidazole. In all cases, antibodies raised against C-terminal were used as solid phase agent. Detector antibodies were N terminal antibodies that were radio-iodinated with  I followed by gel purification. Several of the antibodies coupled to various solid phase matrices were incubated with PTH standards and the detector antibody as well as the commercially available tracer from DiaSorin kit to identify a suitable match pair.
The best pair was polyclonal C-terminal PTH antibody along with the kit tracer from DiaSorin with regards to antibody coated to magnetic cellulose particles. Among the various antibodies and the solid phases evaluated, the best assay was obtained with the matched pair of antibodies (70×G67 and 70×G68) from Fitzgerald immobilized on polystyrene tubes. The polyclonal antibody against C-terminal PTH was chosen as the capture antibody and  I labelled polyclonal antibody against N-terminal PTH as the tracer. The sample values obtained in the antibody coated tubes were comparable to those obtained using a commercial kit.
The results indicated the feasibility of adopting this system for further development into a PTH IRMA for regular production as there is no indigenous kit available for intact PTH.
[Study of the cytosolic concentrations of the tissue poly-peptide specific (TPS) antigen in infiltrating ductal carcinomas of the breast. Positive relationship with hormone dependency and negative with cellular proliferation]
INTRODUCTION: The tissue-specific polypeptide antigen (TPS) is an epitope of the tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) which is defined by the M3 monoclonal antibody and is related to cytokeratin 18. Several groups have demonstrated its value as a useful parameter in the follow-up of some tumors. This work has aimed to study the TPS cytosolic levels in infiltrating ductal carcinomas of the breast (IDC) and their possible correlations with other clinical-biological parameters. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The TPS was determined by means of an immunoradiometric assay (Beki Diagnostics. Sweden). Other parameters included in the study were the estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), pS2, cathepsin D, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), tumor size, axillary lymph node involvement, distant metastases, histological grade, ploidy and S-phase. RESULTS: The TPS cytosolic levels ranged from 1.8 to 606.3 KU/mg prt. (median 110.2) and had a significant correlation with the ER (r: 0.721), PR (r: 0.287), cathepsin D (r: 0.550) and t-PA (r:0.436).The TPS positive (> 110.2 KU/mg prt.) carcinomas had higher levels of ER (p: 0.001), PR (p: 0.021), pS2 (p: 0.058), cathepsin D (p: 0.000) and t-PA (p: 0.053) than the TPS negative tumors. When the IDC were classified according to S-phase values, we observed that the positive cases (S-phase > 8.1%, which represents the median value of all carcinomas) had lower levels of TPS (p: 0.046) than the negative tumors. Likewise, the GoG1 cellular fraction correlated positively and significantly with the TPS cytosolic levels (p: 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results, we suggest that there is a positive correlation between the TPS cytosolic levels and hormone-dependence parameters, as well as an inverse correlation between these and the cellular proliferation parameters. Based on the above, we consider that it is worthwhile to carry out further studies on cytosolic TPS in order to investigate its possible value as a prognostic parameter in breast carcinomas.
Assay of human serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is gaining importance in diagnosis and follow-up of prostatic cancer. In this time-resolved immunofluorometric assay of PSA, strip-wells were coated with a polyclonal antibody against PSA. To prepare the label, a monoclonal antibody displaying high affinity towards PSA was purified and derivatized with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. With use of this derivative, seven to eight Eu atoms could be combined with one antibody molecule with no decrease in immunoreactivity. The minimum detectable concentration of PSA was 0.12 microgram/L. In 60 of 63 women studied, the PSA concentration in serum was less than 0.2 microgram/L. The increase in PSA in serum of asymptomatic men 51 years old or older, as compared with that for younger subjects, was possibly a result of "occult" prostatic hyperplasia. Most of the patients with prostatic hyperplasia or prostatic cancer had higher PSA concentrations than did subjects of ages less than 50 years or asymptomatic age-matched healthy subjects. Results compared favorably with those by an established technique relying on the use of radioactive label. Our method for measuring PSA in human serum is convenient, inexpensive, and well compatible with present clinical practice.