To identify and characterize drug-induced liver injury (DILI) associated with IFN-Ã? in multiple sclerosis (MS) using recommended criteria.
This retrospective, mixed methods design included a cohort of IFN-Ã? exposed MS patients from British Columbia (BC), Canada and a series of DILI cases from other Canadian provinces and two adverse drug reaction (ADR) networks (USA and Sweden). Associations between sex, age and IFN-Ã? product, and DILI were explored in BC cohort using Cox proportional hazard analyses. Characteristics, including the time to DILI, were compared between sites.
In BC, 18/942 (1.9%) of IFN-Ã? exposed MS patients met criteria for DILI, with a trend toward an increased risk for women and those exposed to IFN-Ã?-1a SC (44 mcg 3 Ã? weekly) (adjusted Hazard Ratios: 3.15;95% CI:0.72 - 13.72, p = 0.13 and 6.26;95%CI:0.78 - 50.39, p = 0.08, respectively). Twenty-four additional cases were identified from other sites; the median time to DILI was comparable between BC and other Canadian cases (105 and 90 days, respectively), but longer for the ADR network cases (590 days, p = 0.006).
Approximately 1 in 50 IFN-Ã? exposed patients developed DILI in BC, Canada. Identification of DILI cases from diverse sources highlighted that this reaction occurs even after years of exposure.
Natalizumab (NTZ) and fingolimod (FGL) are mainly used second line in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), although pivotal trials included mainly treatment-naïve patients.
This study aims to provide real-world data on safety and discontinuation rates.
Using IMSE, a drug monitoring registry for all newer MS drugs in Sweden, we analysed differences in baseline characteristics and 1-year drug survival for patients registered 2011-2013, initiating treatment with NTZ (n=640) or FGL (n=876). Among FGL initiators, n=383 (44%) had previously used NTZ (FGL(afterNTZ)).
Compared with NTZ, the FGL cohort was older and more often male (36/38 years, 24%/33% males). Baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale was similar across groups, but MS Severity Score was higher in NTZ patients, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test and MS Impact Scale (MSIS-29) was higher in FGL(afterNTZ) versus FGL(NTZ-naïve) patients. Proportion on drug after 1 year was high, NTZ=87%, FGL(NTZ-naïve)=83% and FGL(afterNTZ)=76%. Adverse events was the most frequent reason for discontinuing FGL (FGL(NTZ-naïve)=9%, FGL(afterNTZ)=12%), and was significantly higher than on NTZ (3%). In contrast, the proportion of patients stopping treatment due to lack of effect was more similar: NTZ=4%, FGL(NTZ-naïve)=3%, FGL(afterNTZ)=8%.
FGL and NTZ were both well tolerated, but FGL less so than NTZ, especially in patients switching to FGL from NTZ. Group differences were not explained by differences in recorded baseline characteristics.
Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is increasing among elderly persons (60 years or older). We performed a nationwide population-based study to estimate incidence and treatment of IBD.
We identified all incident IBD cases in Sweden from 2006 through 2013 using national registers and up to 10 matched population comparator subjects. We collected data on the patients' health care contacts and estimated incidence rates, health service burden, pharmacologic treatments, extra-intestinal manifestations, and surgeries in relation to age of IBD onset (pediatric,
Statins (HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitors) are suggested to act as a predisposing factor for autoimmune diseases, have immunomodulatory effects, and possibly prevent some cancer types - the sum of these effects is unknown in cancers of viral aetiology, such as Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Aim of our study was to find out whether statin users in Finland have an increased incidence of MCC.
A cohort of 224715 male and 230220 female statin users during 1994-2007 was identified from the Prescription Register of the National Social Insurance Institution. This cohort was followed up through the Finnish Cancer Registry for MCC up to 2009.
There were altogether 50 cases of MCCs, while the expected number of cases, calculated on the basis of the MCC incidence in comparable Finnish population, was 39.9 (SIR 1.25, 95% CI 0.93-1.65). The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for MCC in ages
There remain concerns about the safety of infliximab therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
To assess the association between the initiation of infliximab and other immunomodulating drugs and the risk of serious bacterial infection in the treatment of IBD.
We assembled a cohort study of patients with IBD, including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). All patients initiating an immunomodulating drug between January 2001 and April 2006 were identified in British Columbia from linked health care utilization databases. Exposure of interest was initiation of infliximab or corticosteroids compared with initiation of other immunosuppressive agents, including azathioprine, mercaptopurine (MP) and methotrexate (MTX). Outcome of interest was serious bacterial infections requiring hospitalization, including Clostridium difficile.
Among 10 662 IBD patients, the incidence rate of bacteriaemia ranged from 3.8 per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval 2.1-6.2) for other immunosuppressive agents to 7.4 (3.3-19.3) for infliximab with slightly higher rate for serious bacterial infections resulting in an adjusted relative risk 1.4 (0.47-4.24). Clostridium difficile infections occurred in 0/1000 (0-5.4) among 521 infliximab initiations and 14/1000 (10.6-18.2) for corticosteroids. Corticosteroid initiation tripled the risk of C. difficile infections (RR = 3.4; 1.9-6.1) compared with other immunosuppressant agents. This corticosteroid effect was neither dose-dependent nor duration-dependent. Bacteriaemia and other serious bacterial infections were not increased by corticosteroids or infliximab (5 events).
In a population-based cohort of patients with IBD, we found no meaningful association between infliximab and serious bacterial infections, although some subgroups had few events. Corticosteroid initiation increased the risk for C. difficile infections in these patients.
Although etanercept is well tolerated and effective in moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, data are limited in Canadian practice settings.
To assess the effectiveness and safety of etanercept in Canadian patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis (Physician Global Assessment [PGA] = 3) in routine practice.
A 1-year, multicenter, open-label trial of 246 patients enrolled from March 2006 to July 2009 was conducted. Patients received etanercept 50 mg subcutaneously twice weekly for 3 months and then 50 mg once weekly for 9 months. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving a PGA score = 2 at month 12. Secondary end points included the proportion of patients achieving PGA score = 2 at months 3, 6, and 9 and change from baseline at month 12 for Patient Global Assessment (PtGA), body surface area, and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Adverse events were reported.
At month 12, 73.5% (95% CI 67.2-79.1) achieved a PGA score = 2. The response was similar regardless of the previous response to systemic or phototherapy. The proportion of patients achieving this score improved from 2.2% (95% CI 0.3-4.2) at baseline to 73.5% (95% CI 67.2-79.1) at 12 months. At 12 months, patients with a DLQI score of 0 or = 5-point improvement was 28.8% (95% CI 22.9-34.7) and 47.3% (95% CI 40.8-53.9), respectively. No new safety signals were reported.
The majority of this Canadian population demonstrated a meaningful improvement in PGA and DLQI scores over 1 year.
Progressive multifocal encephalopathy (PML) is a rare demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, caused by the reactivation of the JC virus in the body during immunosuppression. The use of monoclonal antibodies predisposes to PML, and the epidemiology of the disease has changed. We describe the first PML published from Finland and associated with rituximab treatment in a LED patient.
A number of studies have reported flare-up of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity after cessation of natalizumab, increasing to a level beyond the pre-natalizumab treatment level. Our aim was to describe the development in clinical disease activity following cessation of natalizumab therapy in a large unselected cohort of highly active patients. We studied 375 highly active patients who had suffered at least two significant relapses within 1 year or three relapses within 2 years, or had been treated with mitoxantrone for highly active disease. All patients had discontinued therapy with natalizumab after at least 24 weeks on therapy, and had been followed 3-12 months (mean 8.9 months) after cessation of natalizumab therapy. The annualised relapse rate before start of natalizumab therapy was 0.94 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.88-1.00), 0.47 (95 % CI 0.43-0.52) during natalizumab therapy, 0.63 (95 % CI 0.51-0.76) 1-6 months after natalizumab and 0.55 (95 % CI 0.42-0.70) 7-12 months after natalizumab. However, 83 (22 %) of the patients could be classified as showing rebound of relapses, defined as a higher individual relapse rate after cessation of natalizumab than before natalizumab. These patients had a higher annualised relapse rate during natalizumab therapy. For the whole patient group, the relapse rate after discontinuation did not exceed the pre-natalizumab relapse rate at any time, but 22 % of the patients showed rebound of relapses after discontinuation of natalizumab.
To investigate the safety and efficacy of rituximab in multiple sclerosis (MS).
In this retrospective uncontrolled observational multicenter study, off-label rituximab-treated patients with MS were identified through the Swedish MS register. Outcome data were collected from the MS register and medical charts. Adverse events (AEs) grades 2-5 according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events were recorded.
A total of 822 rituximab-treated patients with MS were identified: 557 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 198 secondary progressive MS (SPMS), and 67 primary progressive MS (PPMS). At baseline, 26.2% had contrast-enhancing lesions (CELs). Patients were treated with 500 or 1,000 mg rituximab IV every 6-12 months, during a mean 21.8 (SD 14.3) months. During treatment, the annualized relapse rates were 0.044 (RRMS), 0.038 (SPMS), and 0.015 (PPMS), and 4.6% of patients displayed CELs. Median Expanded Disability Status Scale remained unchanged in RRMS (p = 0.42) and increased by 0.5 and 1.0 in SPMS and PPMS, respectively (p = 0.10 and 0.25). Infusion-related AEs occurred during 7.8% of infusions and most were mild. A total of 89 AEs grades =2 (of which 76 infections) were recorded in 72 patients. No case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy was detected.
This is the largest cohort of patients with MS treated with rituximab reported so far. The safety, clinical, and MRI findings in this heterogeneous real-world cohort treated with different doses of rituximab were similar to those reported in previous randomized controlled trials on B-cell depletion therapy in MS.
This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with MS, rituximab is safe and effective.
The purpose of this study was to compare the relative risk of second malignancies in a cohort of patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL) against the normal population. Potential effects of type of treatment and duration of follow-up and the site distribution of cancer were also examined. Between 1976 and 1996, 117 patients were diagnosed with HCL in British Columbia who were referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) for treatment. All additional malignancies were traced using a provincial population-based cancer registry and follow-up records from the BCCA. There were 90 men and 27 women. Median age at diagnosis was 53 years. The median follow-up time was 68 months. Twenty-three patients underwent primary splenectomy, 65 received interferon alpha, 24 deoxycoformycin, and 67 cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine). Thirty-six patients had an additional malignancy (30.7%) with a total of 44 tumors. Six patients (5.1%) had two or more malignancies. Twenty-five patients had malignancies diagnosed after HCL (21.3%), three concurrent with HCL (2.6%), and 12 preceding HCL (10.2%). Second tumors (n = 28 tumors) occurred at a median of 40 months after HCL (range, 3 to 167). The relative rate (RR) of second malignancy among men and women was 2.91 (P