Tularemia was diagnosed in 57 patients during an outbreak in central Norway in 1984 and 1985. Clinical categories of the disease showed seasonal variations. A bacterial microagglutination test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with class-specific antibodies against Francisella tularensis outer membrane (OM) antigens were evaluated for the early diagnosis of tularemia. ELISA with immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, or IgM antibodies and the microagglutination test differed only marginally in diagnostic sensitivity. The OM preparation harbored F. tularensis agglutinogens and contained a variety of proteins, several of which functioned as immunogens in tularemia patients, as shown by Western blotting (immunoblotting). All 12 patients tested produced antibodies against a 43,000-molecular-weight OM protein. Individual variation was noted with regard to antibody response against other OM antigens. The OM is a suitable antigen preparation in ELISA for the diagnosis of tularemia and, presumably, contains antigens important in the immunobiology of tularemia.
An insulin-producing clone of rat insulinoma cells (RINm5F) has been used by several investigators as target cells for studies of both humoral and cell-mediated anti-islet immunity in diabetic animals and humans. We noted that the rate of proliferation of RINm5F cells obtained from different laboratories varied considerably, and, in the present study, we have compared the proliferation rates of RINm5F cells obtained from 3 laboratories (Uppsala, Sweden [UPP], Chicago [CHI] and New York [NY]). The cells were plated at 0.5 and 2.0 X 10(4)/cm2 and changes in cell number were measured over 5 days. Basal insulin release was also determined daily. In addition, binding of IgG from sera of human diabetics by each of the cell lines was also examined by a solid-phase, quantitative assay. Plating efficiency was significantly greater in the NY and CHI cells than UPP cells at both plating densities (p less than 0.025). When plated at 2 X 10(4)/cm2, the growth rate of the NY cells was faster than the others (NY: 100.1 +/- 7.8%/day, CHI: 72.2 +/- 8.1%/day, UPP: 78.3 +/- 14.0%/day, p less than 0.025). All growth rates were lower when cells were plated at 5 X 10(4)/cm2, and the differences in growth between the NY and the other cells was greater (NY: 94.1 +/- 12.2%/day, CHI: 61.8 +/- 5.8%/day, UPP: 58.1 +/- 5.6%/day). Insulin release also differed among the cells. More insulin was released by the NY cells than by the other cells on all days, and the CHI cells released more insulin than the UPP cells (p less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
New data concerning biological properties of polyreactive immunoglobulins (PRIG) were obtained as a result of treatment of mouse serum immunoglobulins by 4 M KSCN and are presented in the paper. In particular, the capacity of PRIG to bind C1q, the subunit of the first component of complement was studied. It was shown that PRIG's binding capacity to C1q is similar to that of intact immunoglobulins. Intravenous administration of PRIG into mice together with either sheep red blood cells or heat-inactivated staphylococcal bacteria did not affect the immune response to these antigens. Meanwhile, the same administration of PRIG together with the purified protein derivate of tuberculin resulted in 10-fold increase of mouse antibody response to PPD. These results demonstrate that PRIG can have some immuno-modulating properties concerning low-immunogenic antigens.
We used comprehensive serodiagnostic methods (IgM, IgG, and IgG avidity) and PCR to study Merkel cell polyomavirus and trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus infections in children observed from infancy to adolescence. Comparing seroconversion intervals with previous and subsequent intervals, we found that primary infections with these 2 viruses were asymptomatic in childhood.
Cites: J Clin Virol. 2011 Feb;50(2):125-921094082
Cites: Science. 2008 Feb 22;319(5866):1096-10018202256
Epidemiological investigations were carried out in 2328 children in the districts of the Orenburg district. Iodine deficiency was detected in the children living in the districts having low concentrations in the water and foodstuffs. There was a deviation of immunological parameters from the normal values in the children of the same districts.
We describe 2 cases of erythema nodosum (EN) secondary to an infection with the TWAR strain of chlamydia, recently designated Chlamydia pneumoniae. Two young patients, 17 and 11 years old, were admitted with EN and no physical signs of pneumonia. One patient had a non-productive cough and fever. The other patient only ran a high fever. Chest radiography revealed bronchopneumonias. Infection with the C. pneumoniae species was proven by serologic testing using microimmunofluorescence technique. Serology and cultures for other bacteria known to induce EN were negative. Thus, C. pneumoniae (strain TWAR) can elicit EN.
Hentaxan, a new silicon sorbent, is a complex drug preparation containing hentamycin sulfate and zinc-tryptophan, endowed with antioxidant and immunomodulating activities. We used it for treating suppurating wounds in those women in labour. As many as 65 parturient women were examined. The conclusion drawn from the obtained results is that the immunomodulating potential of hentaxan is not very high, for which reason we recommend that hentaxan be combined with laferon which effects the T-link of immunity. The proposed method is at present under study.
Using directed mutagenesis and phage display on a soluble fragment of the human immunoglobulin super-family receptor ILT2 (synonyms: LIR1, MIR7, CD85j), we have selected a range of mutants with binding affinities enhanced by up to 168,000-fold towards the conserved region of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Produced in a dimeric form, either by chemical cross-linking with bivalent polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives or as a genetic fusion with human IgG Fc-fragment, the mutants exhibited a further increase in ligand-binding strength due to the avidity effect, with resident half-times (t(1/2)) on the surface of MHC I-positive cells of many hours. The novel compounds antagonized the interaction of CD8 co-receptor with MHC I in vitro without affecting the peptide-specific binding of T-cell receptors (TCRs). In both cytokine-release assays and cell-killing experiments the engineered receptors inhibited the activation of CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in the presence of their target cells, with subnanomolar potency and in a dose-dependent manner. As a selective inhibitor of CD8(+) CTL responses, the engineered high affinity ILT2 receptor presents a new tool for studying the activation mechanism of different subsets of CTLs and could have potential for the development of novel autoimmunity therapies.