The electrophoretic and immunochemical methods as well as gelfiltration through Sephadex G-200 showed that there are no immunoglobulins in blood serum of fetuses and new-born calves. Specific proteins in a zone of gamma-globulins electrophoretic mobility which correspond to Ig M and Ig A are found in the serum of calves 3 hrs after their feeding on colostrum. The content of these proteins reaches the maximum on the third day of life but at the age of three months it lowers up to minimum. On the third month after birth in the blood serum of calves there appears a new protein in a zone of gamma2-globulins mobility which correspond to Im G-main immunoglobulin of adult animals. An assumption is advanced that the protective functions of calves of the early age are found chiefly with immunoglobulins Ig M and Ig A.
Enzyme immunoassays (ELISA) have been developed for the detection of BK virus IgG- and IgM-antibodies. Specific IgG is detected by an antigen-coated solid phase test; IgM by an antibody capture method. These methods have been used to study the age-distribution of BK virus antibodies in Tromsø county in Northern Norway. The serum panels tested were: 60 sera from paediatric patients aged 0-1 year; 220 sera from healthy persons aged 1-82 years; 74 sera from healthy blood donors; 107 sera from healthy pregnant women. The age-distribution of BKV-IgG antibodies showed that primary infections took place predominantly between the ages of 1 and 6 years, and that there were no sex differences, either in the age-specific prevalence or in the level of BKV-IgG. We found no significant differences in the prevalence of BKV-IgM antibodies in healthy children and adults and pregnant women. BKV-IgM was detected in 26 of the 461 sera tested (5.6%).
Chlamydia pneumoniae is a newly recognized common cause of respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to examine its prevalence in Iceland. The study was based on 1020 serum samples from individuals 0-99 years old. The samples were divided into 10-year age groups. IgG and IgM antibodies were determined with microimmunofluorescence assay. An IgG titer > or = 32 and IgM titer > or = 16 were considered positive. The prevalence of positive IgG titer in the study population was 53 +/- 16% (mean +/- SD, age group range 14-66%). Neither seasonal nor gender-based difference in IgG antibody prevalence was demonstrated. It was lowest in the youngest group, 0-9 years old (p
Screening of 43 healthy Danish haemophiliacs revealed a significantly lower helper/suppressor (H/S) ratio than in controls. 8 of the haemophiliacs had an H/S ratio less than or equal to 1.0. A significant negative correlation occurred between the total lifetime factor VIII treatment and the H/S ratio. However, high-dose factor VIII treatment given to patients with antibodies against factor VIII was not associated with immunological abnormalities. Children had a significantly higher H/S ratio than the adult haemophiliacs. Patients exclusively treated with Danish cryoprecipitate during the last year had a significantly higher H/S ratio than patients receiving preparations from other sources. This difference might, however, be explained by lower age and lower total lifetime dose in the group receiving Danish preparations. Haemophiliacs treated with American preparations did not differ immunologically from those treated with preparations of other origin. Total serum IgG was increased in 23% of the patients. This parameter was negatively correlated with the H/S ratio. The possible relation of the observed immunological alterations among otherwise healthy haemophiliacs to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome warrants further attention.
This study assesses a possible relationship between chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) infection and lung cancer (LC). A total of 210 consecutive patients (136 M, 74 F) were diagnosed with LC during a 2-year period. Blood was obtained from 128 M and 70 F patients for Cpn serology. Repeat blood specimens were taken after 3 months. Throat specimens for Cpn DNA analysis by PCR were taken from 110/136 M and 63/74 F Seventy-four cytobrush specimens were taken and also analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fifty (29 M, 21 F) bronchial biopsies and 8 (6 M, 2 F) tumors resected at surgery were analyzed for Cpn by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Males had significantly more often squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) than females. Other types of LC were more equally distributed between males and females. The difference between males and females regarding smoking history was significant, and male LC patients had significantly higher levels of IgG and/or IgA antibodies than female LC patients. Male and female LC patients had significantly higher prevalences of high antibody titers than controls. A high prevalence of unusually high titers of specific Cpn antibodies was found in male LC patients. This could indicate that LC may be induced by chronic Cpn infection, since stable high titers of Cpn antibodies, especially IgA, are a hallmark of chronic infections.
In the spring of 1980, an epidemic of an illness that resembled erythema infectiosum occurred in Manitoba, Canada. We initiated prospective epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic studies of this illness among elementary-school children and their families. Initial microbiologic studies failed to identify the cause of the exanthem. After a similar illness associated with serologic evidence of human parvovirus infection occurred in London, stored specimens of 12 patients with exanthem were investigated for parvovirus infection. Eleven patients had parvovirus-specific IgM antibody, as did two family contacts and a teacher with nonexanthematous illnesses, and two asymptomatic family members. None of 28 children with measles or rubella had serologic evidence of recent parvovirus infection. Human parvovirus was detected by DNA hybridization and immune electron microscopy in the serum of one patient who later had a rash and in one unaffected family contact. Parvovirus DNA was also detected in the pharyngeal specimen of the teacher who was ill but did not have a rash. We conclude that human parvovirus infection can be asymptomatic or cause a variety of clinical manifestations, including nonexanthematous illness and an illness resembling erythema infectiosum.
A survey of over 600 'normal' sera from 14 animal species by immunoprecipitin tests in cellulose acetate using viron antigens revealed a high incidence of precipitating activity against a broad range of influenza A virus strains, particularly A2hHong Kong/1/68 and /PR8. However, serum treatments trypsin-heat-periodate, NaIO4, V. cholerae receptor-destroying enzyme (RDE), or kaolin eliminated most precipitating activity, which suggests that it was due to "non-specific" inhibitors of influenze viruses. A resistant minority could not be identified as inhibitor or antibody on this basis. Precipitation of the influenza A major type-specific antigen in virus-soluble antigens by human 7S gamma globulin antibody (IgG), demonstrated to be specific for influenza virus, was established as a reference reaction to identify similar immunoprecipitin reactions occurring between virus-soluble antigens and normal or immune sera. Complement fixation tests provided supplementary evidence for the presence of influenza A antibodies in these sera. Influenza A antibodies were found in only a few sera of six animal species: cat, dog, rabbit, goat, chipmunk, and sheep. Thus the animal species examined in the Ottawa area have not revealed an unequivocal reservoir for human influenza A viruses.
An increased level of antibodies to beta-lactoglobulin is a risk determinant for early-onset type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus independent of islet cell antibodies and early introduction of cow's milk.
Using a case-control design we have studied whether antibodies to cow's milk proteins are risk determinants for childhood-onset Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus independent of early exposure to cow's milk formula and islet cell antibodies. Sera from 116 recent-onset diabetic children and 112 age- and sex-matched control children were analysed for cow's milk protein IgA, IgG and IgM antibodies, beta-lactoglobulin IgA and IgM antibodies and islet cell antibodies. The titres were compared to questionnaire data on duration of breast-feeding and introduction of formula feeding. Most antibody levels tended to be increased among diabetic compared to control children. This was statistically significant for cow's milk protein IgA antibodies (p less than 0.001) and beta-lactoglobulin IgA antibodies (p less than 0.01) as well as for islet cell antibody-positivity which was found among 92% of the diabetic and 3% of control children. The differences in cow's milk protein antibodies as well as beta-lactoglobulin antibodies were more pronounced among children with an early onset of Type 1 diabetes. Breast-feeding duration was significantly inversely related to the log of beta-lactoglobulin IgG (r = -0.16, p = 0.04) and the log of cow's milk protein IgA antibodies (r = -0.17, p less than 0.001). A positive correlation was found between formula feeding and the logarithm of beta-lactoglobulin IgG antibodies (r = 0.22, p = 0.01) and the log of cow's milk protein IgA antibodies (r = 0.16, p = 0.04).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)