Thirty-one adult patients with asthma caused by house-dust mites (HDM) were included in this placebo-controlled, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of specific immunotherapy (SIT) with biologically standardized extracts of HDM. The specific diagnosis was confirmed by skin prick tests, specific IgE, and bronchial provocation tests with HDM allergens. The patients were randomized to receive active treatment with extracts of either Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) or D. farinae (Dfa) (Alutard SQ, ALK, Denmark) or placebo injections. Twenty-three patients completed the study. After 1 year of treatment, we found a clinically important and significant reduction in both asthma medicine consumption (inhaled steroids 38% and beta 2-agonists 46%) and symptom score (57%) in the actively treated group, but not the placebo group. These findings were confirmed by a significant decrease in skin and bronchial sensitivity to HDM in the active group. Additionally, there was a significant difference in the patients' scores for effect in favor of the actively treated group. Total IgE and specific IgE to HDM showed no significant changes before and after treatment for either group. Spirometric lung-function measurements showed a significant increase in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) from 85% before to 89% of predicted values after treatment for the actively treated group. Peak-flow measurements at home showed no significant changes during the study. It is concluded that allergen SIT is an effective treatment in adult patients suffering from asthma due to HDM.
High morbidity rate of atopic diseases among children, including high importance of grass pollen as a sensitizing agent, determine the relevance ofstudies on diagnostic examination systems for appointment of adequate therapy. The research of the most relevant allergens for patients to excludeof duplicating and uninformative tests became urgent after development of a new type of diagnostic tests that does not require expensive equipment. The objective of this research was to evaluate the results of in vitro- and in vivo-diagnostic examinations of children with various forms of atopic disease caused by pollen of meadow grasses, and to choose the most significant prognostic parameters for the diagnosis.
277 children aged 4-16 years with various forms of atopic disease were included in the study. There were performed skin prick tests and determination of IgE-antibodies levels to allergen extracts of cocksfoot (g3), meadow fescue (g4), timothy grass (g6).
In the studied group of patients 32-50% of children have antibodies to grass allergens. There was a close correlation of antibody response on the investigated allergens, quantitative coincidence of IgE-antibodies to g3 andg4 allergens levels. IgE (g6) concentration was close to the IgE(g3) and IgE(g4) levels (85.0 ± 21.6%). Analysis of the skin tests results showed that 44% of patients have a positive response to grass allergens, and in vivo-tests results coincide with serologicaltests results, mostly in a qualitative sense. The most significant relationship was noted between in vivo and in vitro-tests in the results of testing the response to meadow fescue pollen.
Based on these data IgE concentration index to meadow fescue allergens can be used as a prognostic marker to determine the sensitization of patients with different nosology forms of allergy and can help to improve allergic diagnostics.
History of acute symptoms (cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, fever, stuffy nose, and skin itching/rash) following exposure to grain dust was obtained from 661 male and 535 female current and former farmers. These symptoms were relatively common: 60% of male and 25% of female farmers reported at least one such symptom on exposure to grain dust. Association of cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and stuffy nose with skin reactivity and capacity to form IgE is consistent with an allergic nature of these symptoms. Barley and oats dust were perceived as dust most often producing symptoms. On the other hand, grain fever showed a different pattern, i.e., it was not associated with either skin reactivity or total IgE. Smoking might modify the susceptibility to react to grain dust with symptoms. Only those who reported wheezing on exposure to grain dust may have an increased risk to develop chronic airflow obstruction.
We previously demonstrated that mercuric chloride (HgCl2) injected-(Lewis x Brown-Norway) F1 rats are protected against experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) induced by active immunization with the retinal S-antigen (S-Ag). To better understand the mechanisms of the protection promoted by HgCl2, we studied the effect of HgCl2-induced autoimmune disease on transferred EAU. We demonstrate herein that HgCl2 has no effect on adoptively transferred EAU. Therefore, the HgCl2-induced autoimmune disease does not affect effector S-Ag specific T cells activated in vitro but acts at an earlier stage.
The goal was to examine the relationship between age at the introduction of solid foods during the first year of life and allergic sensitization in 5-year-old children.
We analyzed data from the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention nutrition study, a prospective, birth cohort study. We studied 994 children with HLA-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes mellitus for whom information on breastfeeding, age at the introduction of solid foods, and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E levels at 5 years was available. The association between age at the introduction of solid foods and allergic sensitization was analyzed by using logistic regression.
The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 1.8 months (range: 0-10 months). After adjustment for potential confounders, late introduction of potatoes (>4 months), oats (>5 months), rye (>7 months), wheat (>6 months), meat (>5.5 months), fish (>8.2 months), and eggs (>10.5 months) was significantly directly associated with sensitization to food allergens. Late introduction of potatoes, rye, meat, and fish was significantly associated with sensitization to any inhalant allergen. In models that included all solid foods that were significantly related to the end points, eggs, oats, and wheat remained the most important foods related to sensitization to food allergens, whereas potatoes and fish were the most important foods associated with inhalant allergic sensitization. We found no evidence of reverse causality, taking into account parental allergic rhinitis and asthma.
Late introduction of solid foods was associated with increased risk of allergic sensitization to food and inhalant allergens.
In a previously published prospective study, we followed the development of allergic symptoms in term infants with a slightly reduced birthweight (-1 SD to -2 SD). These children received, according to local routine, early feeding with cow milk formula in order to diminish such neonatal problems as hypoglycemia and hyperbilirubinemia. Of 216 infants 207 were observed for allergic symptoms up to 18 months of age. One group (F) received cow milk formula during the first days of life before the mother's breastmilk production started and was then breastfed; the other (B) was not given any formula before normal breastfeeding started. Unexpectedly, we found fewer allergic symptoms, in particular allergic skin problems, in the group fed cow milk, the difference being concentrated to children with a family history of allergic symptoms. At 5 years of age 183 of the 207 children have been reinvestigated. Mild symptoms of allergy (suspected and obvious) were found in 22% (F) and 27% (B) respectively (NS). Moderate and severe symptoms of allergy (obvious) were found in 4.2% (F) and 4.5% (B). In the subgroup with a double family history of allergic symptoms, 28% (7/25, F) and 59% (10/17, B) had symptoms of allergy (p less than 0.05). This difference was even more pronounced when laboratory tests in favour of atopic diagnosis were included, 14% (F) and 53% (B) respectively (p less than 0.05). Thus at 5 years we still find a significantly lower frequency of allergic symptoms in the subgroup fed cow milk formula early with a family history of allergic symptoms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Food proteins can sensitize the infants via different sources. A 5-month-old boy suffered three episodes of generalized urticaria 20 min after the ingestion of a fruit purée containing apple, banana and orange. Skin testing showed positive results to banana and chestnut. Other tests were negative. The value of specific immunoglobulin E (Pharmacia CAP-FEIA, Uppsala, Sweden) to banana was 58 KU/l, to orange was 9.7 KU/l, to chestnut was 5.6 KU/l and to latex was 1.6 KU/l. Orange, apple and latex products were well tolerated. He never had eaten chestnut. The parents rejected a banana challenge test. The route of sensitization in our case might be via placenta, breast-milk, and inadvertent oral intake of food or even via inhalation. An early frequent exposure to banana allergens was considered a possibility factor for the development of banana sensitization. We found that the banana consumption during pregnancy and lactation by the mother of our patient was greater than usual. It is not frequent to find so high levels of sensitization to any fruit in first year of life. In our case, latex, chestnut and orange sensitizations did not seem to be clinically relevant. However, latex and foods known to cross-react with banana antigens should be given to banana-sensitive individuals with great caution.
Several studies have recognized neuromuscular blocking agents as the most common cause of anaphylaxis during general anesthesia, but the reported frequencies vary considerably between countries. In Norway, the issue has raised special concern because of reports from the Norwegian Medicines Agency that suggest a high prevalence. This article presents the results from a standardized allergy follow-up examination of 83 anaphylactic reactions related to general anesthesia performed at one allergy center in Bergen, Norway.
Eighty-three cases were examined during the 6-yr period of 1996-2001. The diagnostic protocol consisted of case history, serum tryptase measurements, specific immunoassays, and skin tests.
Immunoglobulin E-mediated anaphylaxis was established in 71.1% of the cases, and neuromuscular blocking agents were by far the most frequent allergen (93.2%). Suxamethonium was the most frequently involved substance, followed by rocuronium and vecuronium. The few reactions in which other allergies could be detected were mainly linked to latex (3.6%).
Neuromuscular blocking agents were the dominating antigens causing immunoglobulin E-mediated anaphylaxis in this study. The data could not be used for estimation of the incidence of allergy toward neuromuscular blocking agents in Norway. Larger patient samples, standardization of reporting, and diagnostic protocols should be pursued by network formation to produce data more suitable for epidemiologic research.
The purpose of the presented experiments was to study the possibility of using the Brown Norway rat as a model for food allergy in our laboratory. Specific serum IgE against ovalbumin (OVA) was induced after dosing male and female Brown Norway rats daily by gavage for 35 days. The influence of various preparations of allergen: OVA grade II, OVA grade V, and fresh egg white, age (4 versus 8 weeks), dosing volumes, and animal suppliers was studied. A general finding was that females had statistically significantly higher specific IgE and IgG titres and number of responders than males. Egg white preparation, age, dosing volume, and animal supplier did not statistically significantly influence the median IgE and IgG titres and number of responders. The difference between immune responses in males and females could not be attributed to variations in daily intake of OVA or exposure via the lung. In our hands, the oral Brown rat food allergy model gives rise to a moderate number of IgE responders, 13-38 and 38-75% in males and females, respectively. For further experiments with this model in our laboratory, females seem the sex of choice.