PURPOSE: The paper presents links between iodine provision and selected acute phase proteins' (APP) serum concentrations as well as their glycosylations profiles (investigated with the use of affinity immunoelectrophoresis with Concanavalin A as ligand) in children. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 116 children (58 girls and 58 boys) were enrolled. Iodine level was measured in the morning (7:30-8:30) urine portion, using Cr-As method. According to iodine level children were divided into two groups. The first one consisted of 56 children with decreased iodine level (lower than 100 micrograms/L), second--60 children with iodine level higher than 100 micrograms/L. In serum the concentration of ferritin, beta2-microglobulin (beta2-MG), thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronin (T3), thyrotrophic hormone (TSH) were measured by radioimmunoassay (BELORIS, Belarus). Concentrations of APP: C-reactive protein (CRP), alphal-acid glycoprotein (AGP), alphal-antichymotrypsin (ACT), alphal-antitrypsin (AT), haptoglobin (Hp), alpha2-macroglobulin (A2-M), ceruloplasmin (Cp) and transferrin (Tf) were measured in sera samples by rocket immunoelectrophoresis acc. to Laurell with antibodies and standard from DakoCytomation, Denmark. Microheterogeneity of AGP, ACT and Tf was estimated using affinity immunoelectrophoresis with ConA as a ligand, acc. to Bøg-Hansen. RESULTS: It was established, that CRP level was lower than upper limit of normal range. Levels of other investigated proteins were reliably dependent on the level of iodine. Especially for AGP lower level was observed for children of the group with low iodine level. In children with low iodine level along with the decrease of serum AGP concentration altered glycosylations profile was observed, namely decrease in the content of variant non-reactive to ConA (W0) and increase in content of weakly reactive (W1) and reactive (W2) variants content, which resulted in increase of the reactivity coefficient (AGP-RC). Similar tendency in alterations of distinctly glycosylated variants in relation to iodine level could be shown for ACT. Serum concentration of any investigated protein was not dependent on the concentration of the hormones of pituitary-thyroid system. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that the influence of the iodine level is direct, not via thyroid hormones. It could be suggested that in euthyroid children with low iodine excretion with urine a hidden iodine deficiency is already registered by the regulatory mechanisms and a kind of acute phase reaction is started, may be in order to increase iodine uptake and storage.
The use of counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) as a diagnostic tool in infectious diseases is becoming more widespread. This study was undertaken to determine the possible use of CIE in the more rapid identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae in clinical isolates. Typing sera were obtained from the Statens Seruminstitut, Denmark. Sixty-seven out of 68 pneumococcal isolates that were optochin sensitive and bile soluble were typed by CIE. One isolate was nontypable even after mouse passage. An additional three isolates that were optochin resistant were considered to be pneumococci on the basis of the bile solubility test and their typability by CIE. Seventy-seven alpha-streptococci were tested for the presence of cross-reacting capsular antigens. Fifty-three alpha-streptococci showed no cross-reactions using the omniserum. Precipitin bands were obtained with the omniserum with 10 of the isolates, but these did not react with type-specific antisera. However, 14 isolates did react with the type-specific pneumococcal antisera. The sensitivity of the test was increased by sonicating whole-cell suspensions before electrophoresis was carried out. Mueller-Hinton broths were inoculated with presumptive pneumococcal colonies that formed the predominant or only colony type on primary blood agar plates. These cultures required a 4-h incubation period with an initial inoculum of 10(6) viable organisms/ml before a precipitin band could be detected. Precipitin bands were observed in 54 out of 56 (97%) broth cultures of pneumococci that had been incubated for 4 h at 37 C. These data suggest that CIE could be a useful tool in the identification of S. pneumoniae isolated from clinical specimens.
Strains (338) of herpes simplex virus (HSV) were isolated in Stockholm during 1965-1974. By immunoelectroosmophoresis it was possible to identify all strains as either HSV type 1 (HSV-1) or 2 (HSV-2). No strains of intermediate antigenic type or with untypable characteristics were found. The antigenic type of HSV was correlated with body site and clinical features of infection. A case of severe, recurrent, abdominal pain in association with HSV-2 infection is described. In one patient with acute aseptic meningitis, both coxsackievirus A9 and HSV-2 were isolated from the same specimen of cerebrospinal fluid. Serology suggested a primary infection with coxsackievirus A9 and a recurrent HSV-2 infection. HSV-1 was isolated from specimens of cerebrospinal fluid. Serology suggested a primary infection with coxsackievirus A9 and a recurrent HSV-2 infection. HSV-1 was isolated from specimens of cerebrospinal fluid from two of four adults with HSV encephalitis.
A possible new subgroup of human rotavirus was found by crossed immunoelectrophoresis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The epidemiology of the established subgroups 1 and 2 and this new variant was studied in two different communities. Of 398 rotavirus isolates from Malmö, Sweden, 26.8% were of type 1, 71.7% of type 2, and 1.5% of the new variant. Corresponding figures for 384 samples from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, were 33.1% type 1 and 66.9% type 2. A total of 87% of the Swedish and 79% of the Ethiopian rotavirus-positive samples could be classified. The yearly distribution of the subgroups was stable and similar in Sweden and Ethiopia. The new variant could only be found in one outbreak during 1979. Among children with sequential infections eight of ten primary infections were type 1, and no one shed the same type of rotavirus twice.
The content of IgE, specific to the unicellular green alga Chlorella sp., was analysed in sera from 46 atopic children sensitized to moulds, using radioallergosorbent test (RAST), immunoblotting and crossed immunoelectrophoresis/crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE/CRIE). Chlorella-specific IgE was found in 23/46 sera by RAST, in 28/41 sera by immunoblotting and in 6/30 sera by CIE/CRIE. The Chlorella components most frequently binding IgE as analysed by gradient gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting were of molecular weights of approximately 13, 17, 19, 26 and 49 kD. Twenty-nine precipitating antigens, including seven IgE-binding precipitates were detected by CIE/CRIE. The study shows that low concentrations of specific IgE are formed to the green alga Chlorella in sera from atopic individuals sensitized to moulds.