A survey of over 600 'normal' sera from 14 animal species by immunoprecipitin tests in cellulose acetate using viron antigens revealed a high incidence of precipitating activity against a broad range of influenza A virus strains, particularly A2hHong Kong/1/68 and /PR8. However, serum treatments trypsin-heat-periodate, NaIO4, V. cholerae receptor-destroying enzyme (RDE), or kaolin eliminated most precipitating activity, which suggests that it was due to "non-specific" inhibitors of influenze viruses. A resistant minority could not be identified as inhibitor or antibody on this basis. Precipitation of the influenza A major type-specific antigen in virus-soluble antigens by human 7S gamma globulin antibody (IgG), demonstrated to be specific for influenza virus, was established as a reference reaction to identify similar immunoprecipitin reactions occurring between virus-soluble antigens and normal or immune sera. Complement fixation tests provided supplementary evidence for the presence of influenza A antibodies in these sera. Influenza A antibodies were found in only a few sera of six animal species: cat, dog, rabbit, goat, chipmunk, and sheep. Thus the animal species examined in the Ottawa area have not revealed an unequivocal reservoir for human influenza A viruses.
An agar diffusion method using microtiter plates was used to detect antibodies to the DNases produced by Staphylococcus aureus, S. intermedius, and S. hyicus. Antibodies to DNase from S. aureus were demonstrated in most of the sera from the species investigated, except dogs, only 11% of whose sera were positive. Positive titers to S. intermedius DNase were found in 84% of deg sera, 61% of Icelandic pony sera, 41% of pig sera, 21% of human sera, and 20% of cow sera but in only 2 and 4% of goat and sheep sera, respectively. Although antibodies to DNase from S. hyicus were not found in sera from humans, dogs, goats, or sheep, 84% of sera from pigs and cows and 29% of sera from Icelandic ponies were positive in this respect. The good accordance between the findings from bacteriological investigations performed elsewhere and the results of serologic tests performed in this study indicates that the results obtained with the serological method in this study properly reflect the actual antigenic exposure to and distribution of the three Staphylococcus spp. in animals and humans.
Sera from 341 individuals living in the distribution area of the tick Ixodes recinus were tested for tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) antibodies by HAI and gel diffusion. Kaolin treatment was unreliable for the removal of non-specific HAI inhibitors. Seven sera positive after this treatment were shown to be negative after acetone extraction/flotation centrifugation. The antibody prevalence rate was 19.6%. Seventy-one % of the sera had titres greater than or equal to 40. The prevalence rate decreased with age. Some sera with low HAI titres could be confirmed by a sensitive Ouchterlony technique, while some with high titres could not, even after ten-fold concentration. Clinical information obtained retrospectively regarding patients with high antibody titres revealed some cases consistent with a TBE virus infection. Antibody prevalence rates indicate that TBE virus is more active than Uukuniemi and Kemorovo group virus in tick-infested areas. Mixed foci of these viruses have been indicated by serological findings and virus isolations.
Sera from 521 residents of an institution for the mentally retarded near Helsinki, Finland were examined by a hemagglutination assay to determine the distribution and titers of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs). 36.1% were found to contain anti-HBs. Factors were identified which are related to the presence or absence of anti-HBs in this population. A documented past history of hepatitis, living in "asocial" wards in which at least one HBsAg carrier was present, long institutionalization (is greater than 10 yrs.), admission to the institution between ages 5 and 19, a present age between 20 and 39, and being male were associated with the presence of anti-HBs. 43.5% of the males but only 22.2% of the females had antibody. Down's syndrome patients had lower titers but not lower frequencies of anti-HBs than the non Down's patients.
Presented are the results of antioxidant status of inhabitants of Yakutia. The intensity of lipid peroxydation depends on professional factors: influence of the quartz dust and smoking. Miners and smokers have high concentration of malonil dialdegide in blood. The SOD and catalase levels did not statistically depend on sex and nationality, but increased in miners and smokers. Insufficiency of vitamins C, A and E combined with immunoglobulins deviations. It should be noticed that country-people have more deviations in vitamin and immune status than towns-people.
The possibility of using different lectins for the determination of level of specific antibodies to leukosis virus virus in bovine blood serum whit the help of the surface plasmon resonance was investigated. The modification of transducer surface with lectins provides for immobilisation of glycosilated proteins of leukaemia virus. It allows to make selective determination of antibodies to glicosilated protein, the quantity of which more high in blood serum of ill animals in the comparison with the immunised ones. Moreover, the treatment of surface with FGA-P and PLA lectins increases the sensitivity of immune sensor to the specific antibodies in the comparison with the non-treated one.
Previous studies have shown an increase in the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in the peripheral blood lymphocytes from opisthorchiasis patients. Some evidence suggests that there is an association between chronic opisthorchiasis and certain herpes viruses. To study the relationship of opisthorchiasis to the reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection as well as the influence of opisthorchis infection on some cytogenetical and immunological parameters, we used the indirect immunofluorescence for measuring some virus specific antibodies, the cytokinesis-block lymphocyte micronucleus assay, and the quantitative immunodiffusion method for measuring immunoglobulin concentrations in serum. A total of 1,580 people were monitored in two comparable Siberian regions: in the Ob River region which is endemically related to opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchisfelineus and in the nonendemic control Yenisey River region. There was no significant difference in each of the tested parameters between two uninfected controls from the endemic Ob and nonendemic Yenisey regions. We have found significant difference (p
OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the extent to which seemingly healthy, mature adults with mild symptoms of dry eyes or dry mouth share the immunologic features found in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. METHODS. Of 705 subjects in Malmö, Sweden (age range 52-72 years) who responded to a questionnaire, 35% reported some symptoms of dry eyes or mouth. A random subgroup of the symptomatic subjects (n = 77) and an age- and sex-matched control group from among the asymptomatic subjects (n = 32) were evaluated objectively by serologic testing and by various measures of exocrine gland function. RESULTS. The symptomatic subjects had relatively impaired exocrine gland function and elevated levels of anti-Ro and anti-La (1.54-2.88-fold increase compared with the asymptomatic subjects, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41, 4.03). The 2 autoantibodies correlated with each other (r = 0.64, 95% CI 0.49, 0.78) as well as with selected clinical measures of glandular function. CONCLUSION. The association between self-reported symptoms of dry eyes or dry mouth and anti-Ro and anti-La, found in more than one-third of mature adults in this study, suggests that the immune abnormalities and exocrine gland dysfunction found in Sjögren's syndrome affect a substantial proportion of the general population.