The results of screening more than 23,000 serum samples from persons belonging to risk groups, as well as those not belonging to such groups, in Moscow, Vilnius and Klaipeda are presented. Screening was carried out with the use of an assay system manufactured by the Scientific and Industrial Amalgamation "Antigen" (USSR). In this screening 3 HIV carriers were detected; of these, 2 were foreign students from two African countries.
The present study evaluated two non-invasive diagnostic methods for H. pylori infection in children, i.e. an in-house ELISA using sonicated Campylobacter jejuni antigen for absorption of cross-reacting antibodies and an immunoblot kit (Helico Blot 2.0, Genelabs, Singapore). 13C -Urea breath test (13C-UBT) was used as reference METHOD: Sera and questionnaires were collected from 695/858 (81%) Swedish school children with mixed ethnic backgrounds within a cross-sectional, community-based study. Of 133 children with an ELISA OD value of > or = 0.1, all were screened with immunoblot and 107 made a 13C-UBT. The negative controls were 34/37 children from three school classes with an ELISA OD value of
BACKGROUND: Potassium depletion is a common electrolyte abnormality in elderly humans, usually as a consequence of diuretic use or poor oral intake. Hypokalemia is associated with a number of changes in renal function and an increase in some renal membrane transporters; its growth-promoting effect in young animals is well known. With aging, the renal adaptation to a number of challenges is often diminished. We hypothesized that aging is related to decreases in renal function, renal membrane protein metabolism, as well as Na, K-ATPase protein abundance and activity in both control animals as well as in those with potassium depletion. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of dietary-induced hypokalemia in true-aged nonobese rats (30 months old) on renal function, cortical brush border membrane (BBM) and basolateral membrane (BLM) protein metabolism, and Na,K-ATPase protein abundance and activity. We compared the results obtained to those seen in their 4-month-old counterparts similarly treated. Methods: Young (4-month-old) and senescent (30-month-old) male Fisher 344 x Brown-Norway F(1) rats (F344 x BNF(1)) were fed either a normal or potassium-deficient diet for 7 days. At 24 h, the U-(14)C-leucine incorporation was measured for determination of protein metabolism in renal BBM and BLM. Cortical BLM vesicle and microdissected proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) Na, K-ATPase activities were determined along with Western blot analysis of the cortical BLM alpha(1) subunit of Na,K-ATPase. Metabolic and renal function parameters were also examined. RESULTS: Hypokalemia caused hyperbicarbonatemia, hyperglycemia, and azotemia, but only in the senescent animals. The aged control rats had a higher basal level of urine volume, ammonium excretion, and fractional excretion of chloride. By contrast, aging in the F344 x BNF(1) rats was associated with a decrease in plasma aldosterone (by 35%) and phosphate (by 40%) levels as compared with their young controls. Hypokalemia resulted in a significant reduction of plasma aldosterone and a rise in muscle sodium concentration in both age groups; it significantly increased renal BBM and BLM protein concentrations in the young group, while these parameters remained unchanged in the senescent rats. The aged potassium-depleted animals showed a 14% decrease in BBM protein biosynthesis, but there were no changes in the young hypokalemic rats. Both potassium-depleted elderly and young rats had a significant reduction (by 33%) in BLM protein biosynthesis. Hypokalemia significantly increased the Na, K-ATPase activity in both cortical BLM vesicles and in microdissected PCT. The percentage increase in microdissected PCT segments (Na,K-ATPase activity) in elderly potassium-depleted animals was significantly less than that seen in hypokalemic young ones. Aging, per se, was associated with decreased basal microdissected PCT Na,K-ATPase activity in control animals. Hypokalemia had no effect on cortical BLM alpha(1) subunit Na, K-ATPase protein abundance in either age group. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides the first evidence in nonobese aged rats as to the metabolic parameters, renal function, renal cortical membrane protein metabolism, and transporter Na,K-ATPase activity and abundance during potassium depletion. The aged nonobese F344 x BNF(1) rats responded differently from their young nonobese counterparts following potassium depletion. These differences may contribute substantially to the effects often encountered in elderly humans receiving diuretics or having a poor dietary potassium intake.
This study tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) may precede age-associated alterations in muscle morphology and function. Compared to those in adult (6 month) rats, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscle mass was decreased in old (30 month) and very old (36 month) Fischer 344/NNiaHSD x Brown Norway/BiNia rats. The amount of dystrophin, beta-dystroglycan, and alpha-sarcoglycan increased with aging in the EDL and decreased with aging in the soleus. alpha-Dystroglycan levels were increased with aging in both muscles and displayed evidence of altered glycosylation. Immunostaining for the presence of antibody infiltration and dystrophin following increased muscle stretch suggested that the aging in the soleus was characterized by diminished membrane integrity. Together, these data suggest that aging is associated with alterations in EDL and soleus DGC protein content and localization. These results may implicate the DGC as playing a role in age-associated skeletal muscle remodeling.
We report the influence of aging on multiple markers of oxidative-nitrosative stress in the heart of adult (6-month), aged (30-month) and very aged (36-month) Fischer 344/NNiaHSd x Brown Norway/BiNia (F344/NXBN) rats. Compared to adult (6-month) hearts, indices of oxidative (superoxide anion [O2*-], 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [4-HNE]) and nitrosative (protein nitrotyrosylation) stress were 34.1 +/- 28.1%, 186 +/- 28.1% and 94 +/- 5.8% higher, respectively, in 36-month hearts and these findings were highly correlated with increases in left ventricular wall thickness (r > 0.669; r > 0.710 and P
Occurrence of airway irritation among indoor swimming pool personnel was investigated. The aims of this study were to assess trichloramine exposure levels and exhaled nitric oxide in relation to the prevalence of airway symptoms in swimming pool facilities and to determine protein effects in the upper respiratory tract.
The presence of airway symptoms related to work was examined in 146 individuals working at 46 indoor swimming pool facilities. Levels of trichloramine, as well as exhaled nitric oxide, were measured in five facilities with high prevalence of airway irritation and four facilities with no airway irritation among the personnel. Nasal lavage fluid was collected, and protein profiles were determined by a proteomic approach.
17 % of the swimming pool personnel reported airway symptoms related to work. The levels of trichloramine in the swimming pool facilities ranged from 0.04 to 0.36 mg/m(3). There was no covariance between trichloramine levels, exhaled nitric oxide and prevalence of airway symptoms. Protein profiling of the nasal lavage fluid showed that the levels alpha-1-antitrypsin and lactoferrin were significantly higher, and S100-A8 was significantly lower in swimming pool personnel.
This study confirms the occurrence of airway irritation among indoor swimming pool personnel. Our results indicate altered levels of innate immunity proteins in the upper airways that may pose as potential biomarkers. However, swimming pool facilities with high prevalence of airway irritation could not be explained by higher trichloramine exposure levels. Further studies are needed to clarify the environmental factors in indoor swimming pools that cause airway problems and affect the immune system.
Also with a restrictive transfusion policy, screening with second-generation anti-hepatitis C virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay would have reduced post-transfusion hepatitis C after open-heart surgery.
The incidence of post-transfusion hepatitis non-A, non-B (PTH-NANB) was prospectively assessed among open-heart surgery patients from the southeast region of Sweden before the introduction of antihepatitis C virus (HCV) blood donor screening. Blood samples for alanine aminotransferase analysis were drawn before and 2, 3, and 4 months after transfusion. Surgery was performed in four centres. Of 190 transfused and followed-up patients 2 (1.1%) contracted PTH-NANB, both operated on at the centre with significantly fewer transfusions than the other centres. One patient had antibodies to HCV detected by first-generation (C100-3) and later by second-generation anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-2) and by positive second-generation recombinant immunoblot assay (4-RIBA). The other patient, although negative by first-generation anti-HCV ELISA, was positive by second-generation ELISA and by 4-RIBA. Both patients were hepatitis C-viremic by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All the six donors implicated in the two hepatitis cases were first-generation anti-HCV-negative, but two, one for each patient, were positive by second-generation anti-HCV ELISA. This finding was confirmed by positive 4-RIBA in only 1 donor, the other being 'indeterminate'. However, in both donors hepatitis C viremia was found by PCR. This study shows that the second-generation anti-HCV ELISA will further reduce the risk for PTH-NANB/C and draws attention to the problem of evaluation of confirmatory tests.
During the last decade, cases of the fish parasite Anisakis simplex infection and allergy in human have increased in countries with high fish consumption. Our aim was to perform an extended seroprevalence study of anti-IgE antibodies against this parasite in Norway, one of the high fish-consuming countries. At the Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine and the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, two main groups of anonymized serum samples were collected; the first (n = 993) from recently recruited blood donors (designated 'BDO') and the second (n = 414) from patient with total IgE levels =1000 kU/l (designated 'IGE+'). The sera were analysed by the ImmunoCAP(®) method for total IgE and IgE antibodies against A. simplex, house dust mite (HDM), shrimp, cod, crab, brine shrimp and shrimp tropomyosin. The A. simplex positive sera were further tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, which uses 2 recombinant (r) major allergens, rAni s 1 and rAni s 7 as target antigens. SDS-PAGE and Western immunoblotting analyses were also performed. Whereas the prevalences by ImmunoCAP(®) were 0.4% and 16.2% in the BDO and IGE+ groups, respectively, analyses with recombinant allergens showed only 0.0% and 0.2%. Cross-reactivity and immunoblotting analyses suggested that most of the ImmunoCAP(®) positive sera were probably false-positive due to cross-sensitization to shrimp and HDM. However, positivity due to other A. simplex antigens should also be considered. Compared with other high fish-consuming countries, we observed a very low seroprevalence of anti-Anisakis IgE antibodies in a Norwegian population.
Antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) were determined in Chinese blood donors from the city of Wuhan by ELISA screening tests and confirmatory recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). 281 and 222 sera were sampled under similar conditions in 1989 and 1990, respectively. The first collection of sera was sent to Sweden in lyophilized form, the second directly as fresh, unfrozen sera. A high proportion (22%) of the lyophilized sera were positive in the screening assay but only 6 (2.10%) were positive by RIBA with antibodies against both the C100-3 and 5-1-1 peptides. HCV RNA could be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in 3 of the 6 sera and in one reacting with C100-3 only. In the second material of fresh sera only 3 were positive in the screening anti-HCV ELISA, but none was RIBA or PCR positive. Thus, the overall prevalence of anti-HCV among the 503 Chinese blood donors as identified by RIBA was 1.2%, and that of HCV RNA by PCR was 0.8%. The confirmed antibody prevalence is higher than that reported in the western literature.