An open-label randomized study was undertaken to compare a 2-dose regimen (Months 0 and 6) of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) vaccine formulated with a novel adjuvant (HBsAg/AS04) with a standard 3-dose regimen (Months 0, 1 and 6) of licensed recombinant HBsAg vaccine in terms of immunogenicity and reactogenicity when administered to healthy subjects aged between 15 and 40 y. At 1 and 6 months after the full vaccination course there was a 100% seroprotection rate (anti-HBs > or = 10 mIU/ml) with the HBsAg/AS04 vaccine, compared with a 99% response rate with the licensed vaccine. The corresponding geometric mean titres were significantly higher for the novel vaccine compared to the standard vaccine: 15,468 and 2,745 mIU/ml at Months 7 and 12 vs. 6,274 and 1,883 mIU/ml, respectively. There was a higher prevalence of local symptoms with the adjuvant vaccine (90% of doses) than with the standard vaccine (48% of doses). However, these symptoms (pain, swelling and redness) were predominantly of mild-to-moderate intensity and resolved rapidly without treatment. A 2-dose regimen of the new HBsAg/AS04 adjuvant vaccine therefore compared favourably to the standard regimen in healthy young adults. It is anticipated that the simplified vaccination schedule may improve compliance and reduce costs.
Interinstitute Laboratory for Comparative Ecological-Physiological Studies, I. M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry and North-East Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia. email@example.com
Results obtained from complex medical-physiological investigations performed during 10 scientific expeditions in the Arkhangel'sk Region in 2003-2005 are presented. The effects of climatological-geographic, biogeochemical, and social conditions of the conditions obtaining in the Far North region of Russia on sexual maturation, formation of the structural-functional organization of the brain, autonomic functions, and immunological and biochemical status of schoolchildren were studied using state-of-the-art neurophysiological methods (computerized electroencephalography, computerized rheoencephalography, computerized electric dipole origin tomography, etc.), psychophysiological and psychometric methods (assessment of the state of cognitive and memory functions, Wechsler intellectual scale), along with biochemical assay of monoamine oxidase (MAO, the key enzyme in adrenergic neurotransmitter metabolism) and the liver enzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and physicochemical analysis of the levels of macroelements and trace elements in the body.
Few data are available concerning the long term immunogenicity of the pediatric doses of hepatitis B vaccines given to preteenagers. The long term effect of the booster dose in teenagers is unknown. We evaluated the immunogenicity of 2 pediatric hepatitis vaccines after primary vaccination and after a booster dose.
A prospective 15-year follow-up study of the immunogenicity of 2 hepatitis B vaccines was initiated in 1995 in Quebec City, Canada. One year apart, 1129 children 8-10 years old received Engerix-B 10 microg (EB), and 1126 received Recombivax-HB 2.5 microg (RB) vaccine after a 0-, 1-, 6-month schedule. After 5 years, one-third of the 2 cohorts were randomly selected. A booster dose of EB 10 microg or RB 5 microg was administered according to the vaccine used in the primary immunization. Antibodies were measured before, 1 month after and 1 year after the booster injection.
Before the booster dose, anti-HB surface antibody (HBs) was detected in 94.7% of the EB subjects and in 95.2% of the RB subjects (P = 0.85). The geometric mean titer (GMT) was higher in the EB than in the RB group (252 mIU/mL versus 66 mIU/mL, P or =10 mIU/mL. The anti-HBs GMT was 113,201 mIU/mL in the EB and 16,623 mIU/mL in the RB groups (P or =10 mIU/mL. The anti-HBs GMT was 14,028 mIU/mL in the EB and 3437 mIU/mL in the RB group (P
Labor conditions, health and immune status of employees of clinicodiagnostic (biochemical and bacteriological) laboratories of medicoprophylactic institutions are studied. Syndromes of immunodeficiency are revealed, labor conditions and general and chronic morbidity rate among laboratories employees are interrelated.
Development is ongoing to increase the serotype coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. We report here the immunogenicity and safety of a new 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Pn-PD) in infants.
In a randomized, single blind study, 154 Finnish infants received 1 of 3 regimens: 4 doses of Pn-PD at 2, 4, 6 and 12-15 months; 3 doses of the Pn-PD at 2, 4 and 6 months and 1 dose of 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PncPS) at 12-15 months; or 3 doses of the hepatitis B vaccine at 2, 4 and 6 months and Pn-PD at 12-15 months. Serum IgG antibodies to vaccine serotypes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F were measured with an enzyme immunoassay at the ages of 2, 7 and 12-15 months and at 4 or 28 days after the last vaccination. Local and systemic reactions were recorded by parents during 8 days after each dose. Serious adverse reactions were recorded during the entire study period.
There was a significant increase in the IgG concentrations to vaccine serotypes after 3 doses of Pn-PD. Antibody concentrations after the primary series varied between 1.26 and 4.92 microg/ml depending on the serotype and study group. PncPS vaccine induced a better booster response than the Pn-PD, measured at 28 days after the fourth dose. IgG concentrations after the Pn-PD booster ranged between 1.60 and 9.63 microg/ml and after the PncPS booster between 4.24 and 40.54 microg/ml, depending on the serotype. The antibody concentrations after the first dose of Pn-PD administered at 12-15 months increased significantly but were lower than after the fourth dose at the same age. No significant antibody increase was measured 4 days after the vaccinations at 12-15 months. The safety profile of the vaccine was acceptable.
The Pn-PD we tested was immunogenic and safe in infants.
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, it was tested whether rumination-negative, recurrent thoughts-would be associated with immune parameters and health care utilization. Because rumination has been associated with sadness and subjective sleep quality, it was tested whether these factors mediated the possible effects of rumination. A young sample and an elderly sample were included to test for age differences in the association between rumination and health-related measures. METHODS: A representative sample of 196 young subjects (20 to 35 years) and 314 elderly subjects (70 to 85 years) completed questionnaire measures of rumination, sadness, and subjective sleep quality. Immune measures included leukocyte counts, lymphocyte subsets, natural killer cell activity, and T-cell proliferation. Contacts with primary care physicians were registered for 1 year through central registers. RESULTS: Rumination displayed a positive association with total leukocyte count, total lymphocyte count, and number of B cells among the elderly, and this was not mediated by sadness or subjective sleep quality. Rumination was also positively associated with number of telephone consultations during the follow-up for the elderly, and this was partly mediated by sadness and subjective sleep quality. Although total leukocyte counts correlated with number of telephone consultations at the follow-up, none of the immune parameters mediated the association between rumination and health care utilization. No significant associations were found for the young participants. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that rumination may be associated with health-related measures in the elderly. Thus, negative thoughts may be detrimental to health, independently of negative affect.
BACKGROUND: Alaska Native (AN) children were at high risk of acquiring hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection before vaccination began in 1983. We evaluated the long-term protection from hepatitis B (HB) vaccination among AN children immunized when infants. METHODS: During 1984-1995, we recruited a convenience sample of AN children who had received a three dose series of HB vaccine starting at birth and had serum antibody to hepatitis B (anti-HBs) concentrations of >/= 10 mIU/mL at 7-26 months of age. We evaluated anti-HBs concentrations and the presence of anti-HBc in participants' sera every other year up to age 16 years. Anti-HB core antigen (anti-HBc)-positive specimens were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen and for HBV DNA. RESULTS: We followed 334 children for 3151 person-years (median, 10 years per child) with 1610 specimens collected. Anti-HBs concentrations dropped rapidly among all participants. Among children 2, 5 and 10 years of age, 37 of 79 (47%), 33 of 176 (19%) and 8 of 95 (8%), respectively, had anti-HBs concentrations of >/= 10 mIU/mL. Receipt of recombinant vaccine was significantly associated with a more rapid antibody decline (P