A study was made of clinical effectiveness and mechanism of action of the inhibitor of the specific 3',5'-cAMP phosphodiesterase papaverine in a therapeutic complex of measures designed to treat RA patients involving an immunodepressive preparation free from any cytopenic effect prospidin as a basic mediator. It has been shown that the papaverine antiarthritic action is associated with its positive effects on the unspecific component of the immune-complex inflammation, viz. processes of lipid peroxidation, activity of the antioxidant system of defence as well as on the vascular tone and microcirculation. All this improves tissue metabolism, and in this way enhances efficiency of RA basic therapy.
Respiratory tract infections and pyodermia are typical for personnel doing military service under conscription. Risk of progression of these infections is connected with activation of carry-over of causative agents among military personnel during replacement and decrease in immunity of conscripts. Usage of medication "Karmolis Kapli" for the purpose of prophylaxis allows to reduce cases of respiratory tract infections among the military personnel. Among the military servicemen who had take "Karmolis Kapli" was noted reduction of community-acquired pneumonia, tonsillitis and pyodermia morbidity. Non-specific protective effect of medication "Karmolis Kapli" is conditioned by increase of the common resistance of the body. For the purpose of prophylaxis it is necessary to use this medication during the personnel formation before the beginning of seasonal morbidity.
A total of 126 patients with odontogenic inflammatory diseases were examined, 54 of these in Moscow and 72 in Yakutsk. The clinical and immunological parameters were assessed on days 2 and 6 after similar operations. In residents of Yakutsk the inflammatory process was associated with a more expressed intoxication and coursed 1.5 to 2 days longer than in Muscovites; moreover, the residents of Yakutsk developed higher leukocytosis and a drop of T-lymphocyte level with the predominance of T-helpers. Hence, odontogenic inflammations take mainly a hyperergic course in Yakutsk and a normergic one in Moscow.
We report a new case of acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in a 43 year-old white homosexual man, characterized by the association of disseminated cutaneo-mucous Kaposi's sarcoma and cerebral toxoplasmosis. This man had Kaposi's sarcoma for about 10 years but evolution became quickly extensive in July 1981. Chlorambucil was prescribed at that time and was the cause of a pancytopenia. Death occurred in July 1982 due to a cerebral mass identified as toxoplasmosis on a left temporal biopsy. This observation is typical of AIDS, a new syndrome which suddenly developed in the last 2 years in the United States in homosexual men, Haitians and hemophiliacs, and is characterized by disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma and/or opportunistic infections, with a very high mortality rate. Severe toxoplasmosis of CNS has been reported in AIDS and appears to result from defects in cellular immunity which permit recrudescence of latent infection. Cerebral biopsy is necessary for the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis as seroconversion occurs infrequently in immuno-suppressed hosts. AIDS appeared in Western Europe in 1982. Most of the cases were reported in France, Denmark, Belgium and Great Britain. These cases differ from reported cases in the USA: fewer drug or poppers users, fewer homosexual men, an important number of people having lived or travelled in the Kaposi's endemic area (Mediterranean basin and Central Africa). The immunological profile of patients presenting AIDS in Europe doesn't seem to differ from the american profile: serious cellular immunodeficiency and marked increase in the suppressor/cytotoxic cell population. As in the United States, one may suspect, among several hypotheses, that it is caused by one or several transmissible agents now present in France. The nature of these agents, transmissible by sexual contacts and blood, is not yet known: the role of the CMV is now less probable and most of the studies look for the role of other factors such as the HTLV.
The importance of assessment of immunological reactivity in patients with generalized peritonitis suffering alcoholic intoxication ensues from the possibility to use it for the prediction of abdominal inflammation dynamics and thereby for the optimization of organ-protective therapy in critical situations.
Acute laryngotracheitis in the rat induced by Sendai virus: the influx of six different types of immunocompetent cells into the laryngeal mucosa differs strongly between the subglottic and the glottic compartment.
OBJECTIVES: Acute laryngotracheitis is a disease in which mainly the subglottic area is infected, whereas adjacent parts of the larynx, especially the narrow glottic fold, remain unaffected. The reason for the difference between these two directly adjacent regions is unknown. Therefore, in the present study the influx of dendritic cells, neutrophils, T and B lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and macrophages into the mucosa of different laryngeal compartments was investigated after Sendai virus infection in the rat. The aims were to study both the influx of immunocompetent cells and the adhesion of the pathogen and to correlate them to the different reactions of the laryngeal areas during pseudocroup. METHODS: Acute laryngotracheitis was induced by intranasal application of Sendai virus in brown Norway rats. This virus is exclusively pneumotropic in rodents and belongs to the parainfluenza virus type 1, the main pathogen of acute laryngotracheitis in children. The numbers of dendritic cells, neutrophils, T and B lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and macrophages were determined in the supraglottic, glottic, subglottic, and tracheal mucosa on days 2, 5, 7, and 14 after virus application. Furthermore, the nucleoprotein of the virus and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II expression were detected immunohistologically on the laryngeal epithelium. RESULTS: All cell subsets entered the laryngeal mucosa during inflammation. The highest influx was detected among dendritic cells subglottically. This was accompanied by a strong virus adhesion and MHC Class II expression on the subglottic epithelium. In contrast, only a few immunocompetent cells entered the adjacent glottic mucosa, and on the glottic epithelium staining for virus nucleoprotein and MHC Class II expression was weak. CONCLUSIONS: The inflammatory response of the laryngeal mucosa shows great regional differences in this animal model during experimental viral infection. The response was characterized by a strong subglottic and a weak glottic reaction. A possible reason for this difference might be region-specific viral adhesion on the epithelium of the laryngeal areas, as well as differences in MHC Class II expression. Thus, these data agree with the clinical observation during acute laryngotracheitis and may explain why the subglottic part of the larynx is affected preferentially during pseudocroup. The molecular mechanisms mediating the different reactions await clarification.
The article presents data dynamics of adaptive immune responses of people for a long time living in adverse environmental conditions caused by pollution of the environment by industrial toxic waste. It is shown that in the process of adaptation to adverse environmental factors, changes in the immune system are in the phase fluctuations of immunological parameters that are accompanied by changes in the structure of immunodependent pathology. Most sensitive to prolonged exposure to toxic compounds are the cellular mechanisms of immune protection. Violations of the structural and quantitative and functional parameters of the link of the immune system are leading to the formation of immunopathological processes.
Irritable bowel syndrome is observed mostly in Ukrainian children and may be related to adverse health effects as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. The aim of this study was to determine status of T-cell population lymphocytes in children with clinical symptom of irritable bowel syndrome. The test population consisted of 95 participants: 75 rural patients aged 4 to 18 who lived in a contaminated area exposed to natural environmental radiation with clinical symptom of irritable bowel syndrome (categorized in three groups) and 20 healthy urban participants from Kiev aged 5 to 15 as control group. Internal radiation activity has been measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. Peripheral blood leukocytes were analyzed for T-lymphocytes subset such as T-lymphocytes (CD3(+)), T-helper (CD4(+)) and T-cytotoxic (CD8(+)) and then CD4/CD8 ratio was calculated. Percentage of CD3(+) and CD4(+) in all study groups decreased significantly in comparison to control group (p