Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection due to anaerobic bacteria. They often are predisposed to develop infections caused by their own indigenous bacterial flora caused by impairments of their mechanical and immunological defenses, the change in their oral flora due to poor hygiene, and the delay in recognition of acute infection. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers, gastrectomy site wound infections, pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis), and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of the infections and their medical and surgical management were discussed in this review.
Populations of many North American sea ducks are declining. Biomarkers may offer valuable insights regarding the health and fitness of sea ducks in relation to contaminant burdens. In this study we examined body condition, immune function, corticosterone stress response, liver glycogen levels and vitamin A status in relation to tissue concentrations of mercury, selenium and cadmium in female common eiders during the nesting period. The study was conducted in the eastern Canadian arctic during July, 2000. Hepatic mercury, selenium and renal cadmium concentrations ranged 1.5-9.8, 6.5-47.5 and 74-389 microg/g, dry wt, respectively. Mercury concentrations were negatively related to dissection body mass, heart mass and fat mass. Cadmium concentrations were negatively related to mass at capture and dissection mass after controlling for the mercury concentration-dissection mass relationship. Cell-mediated immunity was assessed by the skin swelling reaction to an injection of phytohemagglutinin-P, and was unrelated to metal concentrations. After adjusting the corticosterone concentration to account for the time between capture and sampling, there was a negative relationship between the residual corticosterone concentration and selenium. Liver glycogen concentrations were not significantly related to metal concentrations. Mercury concentrations were positively related to those of hepatic retinol and retinyl palmitate and the ratio of the retinol to retinyl palmitate in liver. They were negatively related to the ratio of plasma to liver retinol. Our findings do not indicate that exposure to metals may have adversely affected the health of these birds. They do, however, suggest that more research is required to elucidate mechanisms by which exposure to these metals could impact body condition.
We studied the basic indicators of immune status of healthy persons of different age groups living in the monsoon climate in the southern Far East. The analysis shows age-dependent development of immunodepressive status, combined with increasing levels of CD16, CD25 and HLA-DR in the aging organism. Climatic and anthropogenic factors effect profoundly damaging on the body, which results in the severity of disorders of the immune system in old, old age and longevity.
The dynamics of an immunotypological structure in migrants in Magadan was studied in relation to the duration of residence in the North. The changes were assessed by the integrated immune heterogeneity index, the atypic immune status index, frequencies of some immune phenotypes, the prevalence of clinical immunopathological signs and HLA Class 1 antigen distribution in the groups of the examinees. The dynamics of the immunotypological structure of migrants to the North was shown to have regular features depending upon the duration of "life in the North", some certain time-dependent, qualitative and quantitative characteristics. The mechanisms of some changes in the population immune structure and their role in the adaptation of northern newcomers to extreme ecological conditions are discussed.
Department of molecular basis of semiotics was organized in 1986. The main task of the department was to work out new approaches in estimation of the state of immune and blood system at the tissue, cell and molecular levels, using biochemical, biophysical and molecular biology techniques. There are several main directions of scientific investigations at the department. Most informational methods were collected in "immunological portrait" for differential diagnostic and complex investigation of the immune system of autoimmune patients. This group of techniques was used to study changes in the immune system of Kievites after the Chernobyl disaster. A decrease of complement and thymic serum activity was detected. Antibodies against nuclear components appeared in 20% of donors. And a higher of circulating immune complex of low molecular weight was observed. Low level of thymic serum activity in blood of autoimmune patients with rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, diabetes, herpes and other depends on the appearance of zinc-independent timuline inhibitor less then 2000 D. Another kind of thymic hormone inhibitors was detected in thymectomized adult mice. Its effect disappears when zinc added in blood rather due to competition for lymphocyte surface receptors timuline and its inactive analogue than other mechanism. Therapeutic effect of UV irradiation of patients' blood was shown to be closely connected with the changes in thymic serum activity in respect to stabilization of thymic hormone/inhibitor ratio. The immunochemical techniques were used to detect and investigate tumor-associated chromatin antigens in human and animal tumor cells. Antigens not found in normal tissues were detected when using rabbit antibodies against chromatin of rat hepatocarcinoma and human colon and carcinoma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Recently, a new category of persons, claiming to suffer from exposure to electromagnetic fields, has been described in the literature. In Sweden, electrohypersensitivity (EHS) is an officially fully recognized functional impairment (i.e., it is not regarded as a disease). Survey studies show that somewhere between 230,000-290,000 Swedish men and women report a variety of symptoms when being in contact with electromagnetic field (EMF) sources. The aim of our studies has been to investigate possible alterations, in the cellular and neuronal systems of these person' skin. As controls, age- and sex-matched persons, without any subjective or clinical symptoms or dermatological history, served. Immunohistochemistry using antisera to the previously characterized marker substances of interest has been utilized. In summary, it is evident from our preliminary data that various alterations are present in the electrohypersensitive person' skin. In view of recent epidemiological studies, pointing to a correlation between long-term exposure from power-frequent magnetic fields or microwaves and cancer, our data ought to be taken seriously and further analyzed.
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of exercise on neuroendocrine and immune systems in healthy individuals. The small amount of correlation links between examined indexes points to a balanced state of neuroendocrinal and immune systems in healthy persons. The increase in the amount of correlation links under exercise of miscellaneous intensity in healthy individuals points to a functional tension of the examined systems. The analysis of variance revealed the dose-dependent effect of exercise on indexes of neuroendocrine and immune systems, and also the exercise-mediated effect of hypophysial-adrenal system indexes on cell immunity in healthy persons.