Andreeva Bay in northwest Russia hosts one of the former coastal technical bases of the Northern Fleet. Currently, this base is designated as the Andreeva Bay branch of Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management (SevRAO) and is a site of temporary storage (STS) for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other radiological waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear submarines and ships. According to an integrated expert evaluation, this site is the most dangerous nuclear facility in northwest Russia. Environmental rehabilitation of the site is currently in progress and is supported by strong international collaboration. This paper describes how the optimization principle (ALARA) has been adopted during the planning of remediation work at the Andreeva Bay STS and how Russian-Norwegian collaboration greatly contributed to ensuring the development and maintenance of a high level safety culture during this process. More specifically, this paper describes how integration of a system, specifically designed for improving the radiological safety of workers during the remediation work at Andreeva Bay, was developed in Russia. It also outlines the 3D radiological simulation and virtual reality based systems developed in Norway that have greatly facilitated effective implementation of the ALARA principle, through supporting radiological characterisation, work planning and optimization, decision making, communication between teams and with the authorities and training of field operators.
Medication misuse results in considerable problems for both patient and society. It is a complex problem with many contributing factors, including timely access to product information.
To investigate the value of 3-dimensional (3D) visualization paired with video conferencing as a tool for pharmaceutical advice over distance in terms of accessibility and ease of use for the advice seeker.
We created a Web-based communication service called AssistancePlus that allows an advisor to demonstrate the physical handling of a complex pharmaceutical product to an advice seeker with the aid of 3D visualization and audio/video conferencing. AssistancePlus was tested in 2 separate user studies performed in a usability lab, under realistic settings and emulating a real usage situation. In the first study, 10 pharmacy students were assisted by 2 advisors from the Swedish National Co-operation of Pharmacies' call centre on the use of an asthma inhaler. The student-advisor interview sessions were filmed on video to qualitatively explore their experience of giving and receiving advice with the aid of 3D visualization. In the second study, 3 advisors from the same call centre instructed 23 participants recruited from the general public on the use of 2 products: (1) an insulin injection pen, and (2) a growth hormone injection syringe. First, participants received advice on one product in an audio-recorded telephone call and for the other product in a video-recorded AssistancePlus session (product order balanced). In conjunction with the AssistancePlus session, participants answered a questionnaire regarding accessibility, perceived expressiveness, and general usefulness of 3D visualization for advice-giving over distance compared with the telephone and were given a short interview focusing on their experience of the 3D features.
In both studies, participants found the AssistancePlus service helpful in providing clear and exact instructions. In the second study, directly comparing AssistancePlus and the telephone, AssistancePlus was judged positively for ease of communication (P = .001), personal contact (P = .001), explanatory power (P
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In this study, a fully automated texture-based segmentation and recognition system for lesion and lungs from CT of thorax is presented. For the segmentation part, we have extracted texture features by Gabor filtering the images, and, then combined these features to segment the target volume by using Fuzzy C Means (FCM) clustering. Since clustering is sensitive to initialization of cluster prototypes, optimal initialization of the cluster prototypes was done by using a Genetic Algorithm. For the recognition stage, we have used cortex like mechanism for extracting statistical features in addition to shape-based features. The segmented regions showed a high degree of imbalance between positive and negative samples, so we employed over and under sampling for balancing the data. Finally, the balanced and normalized data was subjected to Support Vector Machine (SimpleSVM) for training and testing. Results reveal an accuracy of delineation to be 94.06%, 94.32% and 89.04% for left lung, right lung and lesion, respectively. Average sensitivity of the SVM classifier was seen to be 89.48%.
TRACK-HD is a prospective observational study of Huntington's disease (HD) that examines disease progression in premanifest individuals carrying the mutant HTT gene and those with early stage disease. We report 12-month longitudinal changes, building on baseline findings.
we did a 12-month follow-up of patients recruited from the four TRACK-HD study sites in Canada, France, the Netherlands, and the UK. Participants were premanifest individuals (preHD) carrying the mutant HTT gene, patients with early HD, and controls matched by age and sex with the combined preHD and early HD groups. Data were collected by use of 3T MRI and clinical, cognitive, quantitative motor, oculomotor, and neuropsychiatric measures. Statistical analysis assessed annualised change with the use of linear regression models to estimate differences between groups.
116 preHD individuals, 114 early HD patients, and 115 people in the control group completed follow-up. Four preHD individuals, nine early HD patients, and eight people in the control group did not complete the follow-up. A further nine participants, who completed follow-up assessments, were unable to undergo MRI. After adjustment for demographics, annualised rates of generalised and regional brain atrophy were higher in preHD and early HD groups than in controls. Whole-brain atrophy rates were 0·20% (95% CI 0·05-0·34; p=0·0071) per year higher in preHD participants and 0·60% (0·44-0·76; p
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare volumetric image processing techniques for reducing noise and speckle while retaining tissue structures in 3-dimensional (3D) gray scale ultrasound imaging. METHODS: Eighty subjects underwent a clinically indicated abdominal or obstetric 3D ultrasound examination (20 hepatic, 20 renal, and 40 obstetric cases). Volume data were processed on a pixel ("2-dimensional [2D] processing") or a voxel ("3D processing") basis using commercially available image enhancement software (ContextVision AB, Linköping, Sweden). Randomized, side-by-side comparisons of the image processing techniques were performed for each subject. An independent and blinded reader scored the volumes for image quality on a 3-point scale from 1 (worst) to 3 (best) and compared the results using a nonparametric Wilcoxson signed rank test. RESULTS: The 40 subjects with abdominal 3D imaging received a mean score (+/- 1 SD) of 1.52 +/- 0.51, 2.45 +/- 0.60, and 2.75 +/- 0.44 for the original, the 2D processed, and the 3D processed volumes, respectively. The differences between the unprocessed and the processed volumes were highly statistically significant (P
Subjects with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk of vascular complications. The use of carotid ultrasound remains an attractive, non-invasive method to monitor atherosclerotic disease progression and/or response to treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes, with intima-media thickness routinely used as the gold standard to detect pathology. However, alternative measurements, such as plaque area or volume, may represent a potentially more powerful approach. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the traditional intima-media thickness measurement against the novel total plaque volume measurement in analyzing carotid atherosclerosis development in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
The case-control study included 49 Oji-Cree adults with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, aged 21-69, and 49 sex- and age-matched normoglycemic subjects. At baseline, metabolic variables were measured, including body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol: high density lipoprotein ratio, plasma triglycerides, plasma glucose, and serum insulin. Carotid ultrasound measurements, 7 years later, assessed carotid arterial intima-media thickness and total plaque volume.
At baseline, the two groups were well matched for smoking habits, hypertension, body mass index, and waist circumference. Differences were noted in baseline measurements of total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein (P = 0.0006), plasma triglycerides (P 0.70 when comparing intima-media thickness measurements for diabetics versus non-diabetics, thousands of study subjects are required. For comparing total plaque volume measurements, only hundreds of study subjects are required.
The development of atherosclerotic plaque is greater in subjects with diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance. Total plaque volume appears to capture the atherosclerotic disease burden more effectively in subjects with type 2 diabetes, and would be an appropriate outcome measure for studies aimed at changing the diabetic milieu.
To study the capabilities of cone-bean computed tomography (CBCT) in estimating the bone structure when analyzing anthropological findings.
Twenty-four bone fragments (remains) of Napoléon Bonaparte Imperial Army soldiers who had died at a Königsberg military hospital during their retreat from Russia in the War of 1812 were examined by CBCT. A total of 28 tubular bones with different injury healing signs and a skull with maxillofacial trauma marks were investigated. Furthermore, an object from D.G. Rokhlin's paleopathological collection was used to analyze a complicated humeral infectious process. CBCT was performed by individually selecting the scanning foldings, physicotechnical conditions and regimens in relation to the anatomic location and size of fragments.
Processing of the obtained images reveled fractures of different bones in 19 (65.5%) cases. The signs of ununited fractures were visualized in 20.7% of the samples. Image post-processing showed intraarticular consolidated fractures in 13.8% of the anthropological findings. The CBCT examination of bone fragments exhibited the signs of their fusion. A wound pattern was established in 31% of the samples. The specific features of a bone amputation stump could be characterized in detail in 17.2% of the anthropological findings. 51.7% of the cases were found to have signs of sustained bone inflammatory diseases of various genesis, which in 41.4% of them were presented by linear, bulbar, and assimilated periostal reactions and significantly detectable on CBCT scans. Sequestral cavities were imaged in 31% of the fragments.
The CBCT images are characterized by high informative value (from 7.5 to 10.6 pixels/mm), optimal spatial resolution, definition, and hardness. The software of CBCT involves the parameters and possible postprocessing of images (building of panoramic and mulplanar reconstructions, assessment of the density characteristics of tissues), which allow an analysis of anthropological material, by needlessly destroying them.
Numerous observational studies indicate that more aggressive resection may prolong survival in glioblastoma patients. In Trondheim, Norway, intraoperative 3D ultrasound has been in increasing use since November 1997. The aim of the present study was to examine if the introduction of 3D ultrasound and neuronavigation (i. e., the SonoWand® system) may have had an impact on overall survival.
Patient data were obtained retrospectively for the 192 glio-blastoma patients who received surgery and postoperative radiotherapy between 1990 and 2005. Overall survival, before and after 1997, was compared using the log rank test. Possible confounders were adjusted for in a multivariate Cox regression analysis.
We observed an increase in survival for patients in the last study period (9.6 vs. 11.9 months; HR = 0.7; p = 0.034). The significant improvement in the latest time period was sustained after adjusting for age, WHO performance status (=2) and type of radiotherapy (normofractioned or hypofractioned), and chemotherapy (yes/no), p = 0.034. 10 out of 14 patients who survived more than 3 years received treatment after the implementation of 3D ultrasound.
Our study demonstrates that survival has improved within the same period that intraoperative ultrasound and neuronavigation was introduced and established in our department. The demonstrated association is a necessity for causation, but given the nature of this study, one must be cautious to claim causality. The improvement was, however, significant after adjustment for known major prognostic factors.
According to eco-geographic rules, humans from high latitude areas present larger and wider trunks than their low-latitude areas counterparts. This issue has been traditionally addressed on the pelvis but information on the thorax is largely lacking. We test whether ribcages are larger in individuals inhabiting high latitudes than in those from low latitudes and explored the correlation of rib size with latitude. We also test whether a common morphological pattern is exhibited in the thorax of different cold-adapted populations, contributing to their hypothetical widening of the trunk.
We used 3D geometric morphometrics to quantify rib morphology of three hypothetically cold-adapted populations, viz. Greenland (11 individuals), Alaskan Inuit (8 individuals) and people from Tierra del Fuego (8 individuals), in a comparative framework with European (Spain, Portugal and Austria; 24 individuals) and African populations (South African and sub-Saharan African; 20 individuals).
Populations inhabiting high latitudes present longer ribs than individuals inhabiting areas closer to the equator, but a correlation (p?
OBJECTIVE: To compare sonographic endometrial characteristics in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles between women who conceive and those who do not. METHODS: Thirty-five women undergoing IVF treatment participated in the study. Using three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler ultrasound, we assessed endometrial patterns, volume and vascularization, after follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulation but before human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (referred to hereafter as 'after FSH stimulation') and again on the day of oocyte retrieval. RESULTS: The pregnancy rate was 37% (13/35). After FSH stimulation, 29 of the 35 women had a triple-line endometrial pattern, compared with five out of 35 on the day of oocyte retrieval. In those who had a triple-line pattern after FSH stimulation the pregnancy rate was 44.8% (13/29) and it was 0% (0/6) in those with a homogeneous pattern (chi-square test, P = 0.039). If a triple-line pattern was present on the day of oocyte retrieval the pregnancy rate was 80.0% (4/5), whereas if the pattern was homogeneous the pregnancy rate was 30.0% (9/30) (P = 0.032). There were no differences between those who conceived and those who did not in endometrial thickness, volume or vascularization on either day examined. Endometrial volume decreased significantly after hCG injection in women who conceived, but not in those who did not conceive. In both groups endometrial and subendometrial vascularization decreased after hCG injection, while the endometrial thickness remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: The existence of a homogeneous endometrial pattern after FSH stimulation seems to be a prognostic sign of an adverse outcome in IVF, while a triple-line pattern after FSH stimulation and a decrease in endometrial volume appear to be associated with conception.