CONCLUSION: The preoperative three-dimensional (3D) modeling of the pituitary adenoma together with pituitary gland, optic nerves, carotid arteries, and the sphenoid sinuses was adopted for routine use in our institution for all pituitary surgery patients. It gave the surgeon a more profound orientation to the individual surgical field compared with the use of conventional 2D images only. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility of 3D surgical planning for pituitary adenoma surgery using readily available resources. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 40 consecutive patients with pituitary adenoma were used to construct 3D models to be used in preoperative planning and during the surgery. A freely available, open source program (3D Slicer) downloaded to a conventional personal computer (PC) was applied. RESULTS: The authors present a brief description of the 3D reconstruction-based surgical planning workflow. In addition to the preoperative planning the 3D model was used as a 'road map' during the operation. With the 3D model the surgeon was more confident when opening the sellar wall and when evacuating the tumor from areas in contact with vital structures than when using only conventional 2D images.
Andreeva Bay in northwest Russia hosts one of the former coastal technical bases of the Northern Fleet. Currently, this base is designated as the Andreeva Bay branch of Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management (SevRAO) and is a site of temporary storage (STS) for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other radiological waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear submarines and ships. According to an integrated expert evaluation, this site is the most dangerous nuclear facility in northwest Russia. Environmental rehabilitation of the site is currently in progress and is supported by strong international collaboration. This paper describes how the optimization principle (ALARA) has been adopted during the planning of remediation work at the Andreeva Bay STS and how Russian-Norwegian collaboration greatly contributed to ensuring the development and maintenance of a high level safety culture during this process. More specifically, this paper describes how integration of a system, specifically designed for improving the radiological safety of workers during the remediation work at Andreeva Bay, was developed in Russia. It also outlines the 3D radiological simulation and virtual reality based systems developed in Norway that have greatly facilitated effective implementation of the ALARA principle, through supporting radiological characterisation, work planning and optimization, decision making, communication between teams and with the authorities and training of field operators.
Medication misuse results in considerable problems for both patient and society. It is a complex problem with many contributing factors, including timely access to product information.
To investigate the value of 3-dimensional (3D) visualization paired with video conferencing as a tool for pharmaceutical advice over distance in terms of accessibility and ease of use for the advice seeker.
We created a Web-based communication service called AssistancePlus that allows an advisor to demonstrate the physical handling of a complex pharmaceutical product to an advice seeker with the aid of 3D visualization and audio/video conferencing. AssistancePlus was tested in 2 separate user studies performed in a usability lab, under realistic settings and emulating a real usage situation. In the first study, 10 pharmacy students were assisted by 2 advisors from the Swedish National Co-operation of Pharmacies' call centre on the use of an asthma inhaler. The student-advisor interview sessions were filmed on video to qualitatively explore their experience of giving and receiving advice with the aid of 3D visualization. In the second study, 3 advisors from the same call centre instructed 23 participants recruited from the general public on the use of 2 products: (1) an insulin injection pen, and (2) a growth hormone injection syringe. First, participants received advice on one product in an audio-recorded telephone call and for the other product in a video-recorded AssistancePlus session (product order balanced). In conjunction with the AssistancePlus session, participants answered a questionnaire regarding accessibility, perceived expressiveness, and general usefulness of 3D visualization for advice-giving over distance compared with the telephone and were given a short interview focusing on their experience of the 3D features.
In both studies, participants found the AssistancePlus service helpful in providing clear and exact instructions. In the second study, directly comparing AssistancePlus and the telephone, AssistancePlus was judged positively for ease of communication (P = .001), personal contact (P = .001), explanatory power (P
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Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is critical for adequate treatment and care. Recently it has been shown that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be important in preclinical detection of AD. The purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in memory-related brain activation between persons with high versus low risk for AD. This was achieved by combining a validated neurocognitive screening battery (the 7-minutes test) with memory assessment and fMRI.
One hundred two healthy community-living persons with subjective memory complaints were recruited through advertisement and tested with the 7-minutes test. Based on their test performance they were classified as having either high (n = 8) or low risk (n = 94) for AD. Six high-risk individuals and six age-, sex-, and education-matched low-risk individuals were investigated with fMRI while engaged in episodic memory tasks.
The high-risk individuals performed worse than low-risk individuals on tests of episodic memory. Patterns of brain activity during episodic encoding and retrieval showed significant group differences (p
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether endometrial or ovarian parameters as measured using 3D power Doppler ultrasound would predict the outcome in frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. METHODS: Thirty women with no known gynecological pathology undergoing FET were recruited. The FET was carried out in the natural menstrual cycle 3-4 days after the first positive LH test result. Blood samples for hormonal analysis were collected, and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonographic examination was performed on the day of the FET and repeated with analysis of the total hCG one week later. RESULTS: The demographic, clinical, and embryological characteristics were similar between the pregnant (15/30) and nonpregnant groups (15/30). There were no differences between the groups in endometrial/subendometrial thickness, volume, or vascularization index (VI). The endometrial triple-line pattern was more often present in the pregnant group on the day of the FET (93.3% vs. 40.0%, 95% CI 25.5-81.2%). No differences in the ovaries were observed on the day of the FET. At the second visit, the triple-line pattern was still more often present in those patients who had conceived (91.7% vs. 42.9%, 95% CI 18.5-79.1%), and their corpus luteum was more active as judged by the rise in 17-hydroxyprogesterone and estradiol levels. No differences were observed in the dominant ovarian vasculature. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, measurement of power Doppler indices using 3D ultrasound on the day of the FET does not provide any additional information concerning the outcome of the cycle. The existence of the triple-line pattern on the day of the FET seems to be a prognostic sign of a prosperous outcome after FET. The dominant ovary in the pregnant group seems to be already activated one week after the FET.
In this study, a fully automated texture-based segmentation and recognition system for lesion and lungs from CT of thorax is presented. For the segmentation part, we have extracted texture features by Gabor filtering the images, and, then combined these features to segment the target volume by using Fuzzy C Means (FCM) clustering. Since clustering is sensitive to initialization of cluster prototypes, optimal initialization of the cluster prototypes was done by using a Genetic Algorithm. For the recognition stage, we have used cortex like mechanism for extracting statistical features in addition to shape-based features. The segmented regions showed a high degree of imbalance between positive and negative samples, so we employed over and under sampling for balancing the data. Finally, the balanced and normalized data was subjected to Support Vector Machine (SimpleSVM) for training and testing. Results reveal an accuracy of delineation to be 94.06%, 94.32% and 89.04% for left lung, right lung and lesion, respectively. Average sensitivity of the SVM classifier was seen to be 89.48%.
TRACK-HD is a prospective observational study of Huntington's disease (HD) that examines disease progression in premanifest individuals carrying the mutant HTT gene and those with early stage disease. We report 12-month longitudinal changes, building on baseline findings.
we did a 12-month follow-up of patients recruited from the four TRACK-HD study sites in Canada, France, the Netherlands, and the UK. Participants were premanifest individuals (preHD) carrying the mutant HTT gene, patients with early HD, and controls matched by age and sex with the combined preHD and early HD groups. Data were collected by use of 3T MRI and clinical, cognitive, quantitative motor, oculomotor, and neuropsychiatric measures. Statistical analysis assessed annualised change with the use of linear regression models to estimate differences between groups.
116 preHD individuals, 114 early HD patients, and 115 people in the control group completed follow-up. Four preHD individuals, nine early HD patients, and eight people in the control group did not complete the follow-up. A further nine participants, who completed follow-up assessments, were unable to undergo MRI. After adjustment for demographics, annualised rates of generalised and regional brain atrophy were higher in preHD and early HD groups than in controls. Whole-brain atrophy rates were 0·20% (95% CI 0·05-0·34; p=0·0071) per year higher in preHD participants and 0·60% (0·44-0·76; p
Research Centre for the Neurosciences of Ageing, Academic Unit of Psychological Medicine, Australian National University Medical School, The Canberra Hospital, Canberra, Australia. email@example.com
The caudate nucleus is a structure implicated in the neural circuitry of psychological responses to trauma. This study aimed to quantify the volume of the caudate in persons exposed to trauma. Thirty-six subjects under 65 were recruited from transport workers in Stockholm who reported having been unintentionally responsible for a person-under-the-train accident or among employees having experienced an assault in their work (1999-2001) between 3 months and 6 years before MRI scanning. In those exposed to the trauma, a DSM-IV diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was made by an independent psychiatrist, with subjects being classified as PTSD or no PTSD. MRI data were analyzed blindly to all clinical information by an experienced rater using a standardized manual tracing protocol to quantify the volume of the caudate. Within-group comparisons of PTSD (n=19) and no PTSD (n=17) found the right caudate nucleus to be significantly (9%) larger than the left: a right hemisphere baseline asymmetry. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was conducted to assess the volume of the caudate nucleus (right and left) in relation to the diagnosis of no PTSD (n=17) or PTSD (n=19). After adjustment for the covariates (age, sex, intracranial volume, years since trauma, and number of trauma episodes), there was a significant difference in raw right caudate nucleus volume between subjects with PTSD compared with those without PTSD. Volume of the left caudate nucleus was not significantly different between the PTSD and no PTSD groups. The right caudate volume in the PTSD group was 9% greater compared with the no PTSD group. There is a larger right hemisphere volume of the caudate within those exposed to trauma with active PTSD compared with those without PTSD, superimposed upon a baseline caudate asymmetry.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the characteristics of polycystic compared to normal ovaries using three-dimensional (3-D) power Doppler ultrasonography. METHODS: We recruited 42 volunteers, all of whom were commencing IVF treatment. Each patient was examined in the cycle preceeding the start of drug therapy during the late follicular phase. If eight or more subcapsular follicles of 2-8 mm in diameter in one two-dimensional (2-D) plane were detected in either of the ovaries, the patient was categorized as having polycystic ovaries (PCO); otherwise the ovaries were considered normal. The parameters examined were volume of the ovary, vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), vascularization flow index (VFI), and mean greyness (MG). In addition, the ovary was arbitrarily divided into cortex and stroma, and thereafter volume, VI, FI, VFI, and MG were calculated for these two regions. RESULTS: Twenty-eight women had normal ovaries and 14 had PCO. The comparison between normal and PCO showed that as a group the PCO were larger, without any differences in VI, Fl, VFI, or MG. In patients with PCO, the right ovary was larger than the left one. In patients with normal ovaries, Fl was higher on the left side. Division into cortex and stroma revealed that there were no differences in cortical or stromal VI, FI, VFI, or MG between normal and PCO on either side. CONCLUSIONS: The ovaries defined as polycystic were larger than normal ovaries, but there was no difference in the echogenicity of the stroma between polycystic and normal ovaries. We were also unable to demonstrate that the polycystic ovarian stroma was more vascularized than the stroma in the normal ovaries.