PURPOSE: To examine the age- and gender-specific 5-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in citizens of Reykjavik. DESIGN: Population-based, prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: The cohort was a population-based random sample of citizens 50 years and older. Of 1379 eligible subjects, 1045 had a baseline examination in 1996; 846 of the 958 survivors (88.2%) had a 5-year follow-up examination in 2001. METHODS: The incidence of various characteristics of drusen and pigmentary changes that are typical of ARM were determined using the international classification and grading system for ARM and AMD. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Early ARM and AMD were assessed by masked grading of stereo fundus photographs. RESULTS: Hypopigmentation developed at 5 years in 10.7% of people 50 to 59 years of age (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.9-14.4) and in 25.7% those 70 to 79 years of age (95% CI, 18.4-33.0) at baseline. Age-related macular degeneration developed in no one who was 50 to 59 years of age at baseline. Geographic atrophy (GA) developed in 4.6% (95% CI, 1.2-7.9) and exudative AMD in none of those who were 70 years and older at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Geographic atrophy is the predominant type of AMD in Iceland, and the ratio of GA to neovascular AMD is higher than in racially similar populations.
To investigate attrition of subjects in a longitudinal study of caries.
A radiographic study of caries and caries-associated factors was carried out in subjects, initially aged 14 years, and followed-up for six years. Attrition of subjects occurred at the last stage of the study.
A nationwide survey of subjects living in fishing, rural farming, and urban communities in Iceland.
A sub-sample of the nationwide random sample comprising 150 subjects was investigated using bitewing radiographs and a structured questionnaire to determine caries-risk factors. Subjects were re-examined at 16 years and 20 years using the same methods.
Mean caries increment from 14-16 years was 3.0 lesions (1.5 lesions/subject/year) but reduced to 2.6 lesions (0.7 lesions/subject/ year) by 20y. The proportion of subjects found to be caries-free at 14 years, 16 years and 20 years, was 29%, 17% and 10%, respectively. "Dropouts" from this study occurred mostly after 16 years. Analysis of subjects dropping out showed that they were least likely to be from the rural farming community but most likely from the fishing community. Those dropping out attended their dentist less frequently, had a higher consumption of carbonated drinks and a higher prevalence and incidence of caries by 16 years.
Subjects with high-risk behaviours, or residents in a fishing community were more likely to drop out of the study. Recognised advantages of conducting longitudinal studies of caries may, therefore, be lost.
Several copy number variants have been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and these variants have been shown to also influence cognitive abilities in carriers unaffected by psychiatric disorders. Previously, we associated the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion with specific learning disabilities and a larger corpus callosum. Here we investigate, in a much larger sample, the effect of the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion on cognitive, structural and functional correlates of dyslexia and dyscalculia. We report that the deletion confers greatest risk of the combined phenotype of dyslexia and dyscalculia. We also show that the deletion associates with a smaller left fusiform gyrus. Moreover, tailored functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments using phonological lexical decision and multiplication verification tasks demonstrate altered activation in the left fusiform and the left angular gyri in carriers. Thus, by using convergent evidence from neuropsychological testing, and structural and functional neuroimaging, we show that the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion affects cognitive, structural and functional correlates of both dyslexia and dyscalculia.
Abdominal pain is a frequent reason for paediatric emergency department visits, but specific research is lacking. Our aim was to obtain information on the diagnosis of abdominal pain and what healthcare services children with this condition need.
This retrospective study focused on patients visiting the emergency department of the Children's Hospital Iceland in 2010 with abdominal pain and any subsequent visits up to 1 January 2015.
There were 11 340 visits to the emergency department in 2010 and 1118 children made 1414 (12%) visits due to abdominal pain. The majority (58%) with abdominal pain were girls (p
The objective was to investigate prevalence, estimate risk factors, and antenatal suspicion of abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) associated with laparotomy in women in the Nordic countries.
Population-based cohort study.
A 3-year Nordic collaboration among obstetricians to identify and report on uterine rupture, peripartum hysterectomy, excessive blood loss, and AIP from 2009 to 2012 The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study (NOSS).
In the NOSS study, clinicians reported AIP cases from maternity wards and the data were validated against National health registries.
Prevalence, risk factors, antenatal suspicion, birth complications, and risk estimations using aggregated national data.
A total of 205 cases of AIP in association with laparotomy were identified, representing 3.4 per 10 000 deliveries. The single most important risk factor, which was reported in 49% of all cases of AIP, was placenta praevia. The risk of AIP increased seven-fold after one prior caesarean section (CS) to 56-fold after three or more CS. Prior postpartum haemorrhage was associated with six-fold increased risk of AIP (95% confidence interval 3.7-10.9). Approximately 70% of all cases were not diagnosed antepartum. Of these, 39% had prior CS and 33% had placenta praevia.
Our findings indicate that a lower CS rate in the population may be the most effective way to lower the incidence of AIP. Focused ultrasound assessment of women at high risk will likely strengthen antenatal suspicion. Prior PPH is a novel risk factor associated with an increased prevalence of AIP.
An ultrasound assessment in women with placenta praevia or prior CS may double the awareness for AIP.
BACKGROUND: To do a gender comparison of absolute risk of recurrent myocardial infarction (MI). DESIGN: Registration of all first and second MI amongst Icelandic males and females 1981-1999. METHODS: The whole of Icelandic population, 40-74 years of age. RESULTS: The mean recurrence rate (second attack) for men was 45.7/1000 MI survivors/year and for women 39.0/1000 per year. The male/female (M/F) ratio was 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.37, P = 0.05 and did not change significantly with age. The M/F ratio for first MI in comparison was two to seven, lowest in the oldest group. The recurrence rate decreased significantly and similarly in both sexes during the observation period. CONCLUSION: The absolute risk of MI is closely similar amongst both sexes and has decreased similarly suggesting that the same kind of secondary intervention is effective amongst both sexes in a general population.
Objective: Abstinence from alcohol is recommended in patients diagnosed with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and alcoholic cirrhosis (AC). We aimed to determine the impact of alcohol abstinence on prognosis of patients with AC and AH.Methods: All incident AC and AH patients in Iceland 2001-2016 were identified. Cirrhosis was confirmed clinically, biochemically, with imaging and histologically. Abstinence, alcohol rehabilitation and survival were analyzed.Results: Overall, 169 patients with AC and/or AH were identified. Eleven died during index hospitalization, leaving 158 patients for final analysis, median (IQR) age 56?years (48-65), 72% males. Over all 61 patients (39%) had AC, 40 (25%) AH and 57 (36%) features of both. Thirty-nine percent of patients remained abstinent during follow-up and 63% underwent alcohol rehabilitation. Moderate to severe ascites at diagnosis (odds ratio (OR): 3.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.37-7.02) and lack of alcoholic rehabilitation (OR: 5.28, 95% CI: 2.24- 14.11) were independent predictors of abstinence. Abstinence at one year of follow-up was not related to increased survival. Patients surviving one year, abstinence during follow-up was related to increased survival for both groups.Conclusion: Abstinence from alcohol following AC/AH diagnosis was achieved in 39% of patients. Abstinence was not related to increased survival for alcoholic liver disease patients at one-year, which might partly indicate that this might be a marker that some patients were 'too sick to drink'. AC and AH patients who survived one year and remained abstinent had a favorable long-term prognosis.
Acoustic neuroma (AN) is a tumor of the 8th cranial nerve. The goal of this study was to find the incidence of AN in Iceland from 1979 - 2009 as well as investigate other epidemiological factors.
The group of patients with the AN diagnosis was gathered retrospectively through medical records. We looked at several epidemiological factors including age and symptoms at diagnosis, and the treatment chosen for each individual.
The incidence rate of AN in Iceland is 1.24/100,000. About 10% of diagnosed tumors were found incidentally. Most of those were found in the last 10 years of the investigation and in that period fewer large and giant tumors at diagnosis. Present complaints of patients at diagnosis were hearing loss (69%), dysequilibrium/dizziness (47%) and tinnitus (43%). Treatments were surgery (n=47), observation (n=30) and gamma knife radiosurgery (n=16). We had information concerning postoperative hearing loss and facial paralysis in 39 patients who underwent surgery. Loss of hearing postoperatively occurred in 69% (n=27) and 44% (n=17) had facial paralysis. For an average of 3.5 years, 17% of tumors followed by imaging grew.
The incidence of AN is similar to that in Europe and is increasing. More tumors are found incidentally. Small tumors can be followed by regular imaging, at least for the short term. Larger tumors are treated by surgery or gamma knife radiosurgery. A high percentage of patients receiving surgery lost their hearing postoperatively.
After identifying an association between maternal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the authors analyzed a nested case-control study within Finnish and Icelandic maternity cohorts with 7 million years of follow-up to confirm EBV's role in ALL. Offspring of 550,000 mothers were followed up to age 15 years during 1975-1997 by national cancer registries to identify leukemia cases. Mothers of cases and three quarters of matched mothers of controls were identified by national population registers. First-trimester sera from mothers of 304 ALL cases and 39 non-ALL cases and from 943 mothers of controls were analyzed for antibodies to viral capsid antigen, early antigen, and EBV transactivator protein ZEBRA. Relative risk, estimated as odds ratio (95% confidence interval), was adjusted for birth order and sibship size. Combining early antigen and/or ZEBRA immunoglobulin G antibodies with the presence of viral capsid antigen immunoglobulin M antibodies did not increase the estimate for ALL risk for viral capsid antigen immunoglobulin M alone (odds ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 3.0). Both ZEBRA immunoglobulin G antibodies and viral capsid antigen immunoglobulin M antibodies were associated with an increased risk of non-ALL in the offspring (odds ratio = 4.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.3, 16; odds ratio = 5.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 29, respectively), suggesting EBV reactivation in the mothers of non-ALL cases. EBV reactivation may be associated with a proportion of childhood leukemia.