PURPOSE: To examine the age- and gender-specific 5-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in citizens of Reykjavik. DESIGN: Population-based, prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: The cohort was a population-based random sample of citizens 50 years and older. Of 1379 eligible subjects, 1045 had a baseline examination in 1996; 846 of the 958 survivors (88.2%) had a 5-year follow-up examination in 2001. METHODS: The incidence of various characteristics of drusen and pigmentary changes that are typical of ARM were determined using the international classification and grading system for ARM and AMD. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Early ARM and AMD were assessed by masked grading of stereo fundus photographs. RESULTS: Hypopigmentation developed at 5 years in 10.7% of people 50 to 59 years of age (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.9-14.4) and in 25.7% those 70 to 79 years of age (95% CI, 18.4-33.0) at baseline. Age-related macular degeneration developed in no one who was 50 to 59 years of age at baseline. Geographic atrophy (GA) developed in 4.6% (95% CI, 1.2-7.9) and exudative AMD in none of those who were 70 years and older at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Geographic atrophy is the predominant type of AMD in Iceland, and the ratio of GA to neovascular AMD is higher than in racially similar populations.
BACKGROUND: Studies from various countries have found an increasing incidence of childhood leukemia in recent decades. To characterize time trends in the age- and sex-specific incidence of childhood acute leukemia during the last 20 years in the Nordic countries, we analyzed a large set of population-based data from the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) in their acute leukemia database covering a population of approximately 5 million children aged 0-14 years. METHODS: Temporal trends in acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia incidence rates overall and for acute lymphoblastic leukemia immunophenotypes and for specific age groups were analyzed by Poisson regression adjusting for age, sex, and country. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified 1595 girls and 1859 boys diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 2001, and 260 girls and 224 boys diagnosed with de novo acute myeloid leukemia between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 2001. No statistically significant change was seen in the overall incidence rate for acute lymphoblastic leukemia during the 20-year study (annual change = 0.22%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.36% to 0.80%). The incidence rate of B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia remained unchanged (annual change = 0.30%, 95% CI = -0.57% to 1.18%) from January 1, 1986, through December 31, 2001. A somewhat lower incidence in the first years of the study period indicated an early increasing incidence of B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia that corresponded to a simultaneous decreasing incidence of unclassified acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Incidences of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (annual change = 1.55%, 95% CI = -1.14% to 4.31%) and acute myeloid leukemia (annual change = 0.58%, 95% CI = -1.24% to 2.44%) were stable during the study period. CONCLUSION: Incidences of acute myeloid leukemia overall, acute lymphoblastic leukemia overall, and specific acute lymphoblastic leukemia immunophenotypes have been stable in the Nordic countries over the past two decades.
This study describes an outbreak of hepatitis B primarily among intravenous drug users in Iceland which has a population with a very low incidence of hepatitis B virus infection. The incidence of acute hepatitis B is generally low in the Nordic Countries, in the order of one to five cases per 100,000 people per year. Between 1989 and 1992 there was an outbreak of hepatitis B virus infection primarily among the intravenous drug user (IVDU) population in Iceland. At the Department of Medical Virology, University of Iceland there were 44 cases of acute hepatitis B identified during the peak year 1990, an incidence of 16.9 cases of acute hepatitis B per 100,000 people. 63.6% of these were known to be IVDUs. The seroprevalence of the hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) marker was assessed among 1100 randomly selected individuals. The average prevalence of this marker was 2.9% and rose from zero at the age of 15 and younger to 6.5% at the age of 65 and older. Among IVDUs attending a detoxification clinic in 1990 the prevalence of the anti-HBc was 32%. In contrast, those attending the same clinic, due to alcoholism only, did not have a significantly higher prevalence of anti-HBc than the group used for comparison.
The purpose of the study was to assess the incidence and type of toxic exposures presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) at Landspitali University Hospital in Iceland over one year and compare the results to another study performed eleven years before.
The study was prospective and included all visits due to acute poisoning to the ED between January 1, and December 31, 2012.
A total of 977 toxic exposures were documented. Females were 554 (57%) and males 423 (43%). The age range was from 2 months to 96 years old. More than half of the patients were under 30 years old. The majority of exposures occurred in private homes and ingestion was the most common route of exposure. Deliberate poisonings accounted for 66% of all the poisonings and 76% had drugs and/or alcohol as their main cause. Exposures to chemicals other than drugs were usually unintentional and 31% of them were occupational exposures. 80% of patients received treatment and were discharged from the ED, 20% were admitted to other departments, thereof 21% to ICU. Two patients died (0.2%).
A slight but statistically unsignificant increase in incidence was observed. Females outnumbered males. Self-poisonings by ingestion of drugs and/or alcohol accounted for the majority of cases. The age range was wide, but the incidence was higher with young people. Mortality was low. Key words: toxicology, acute poisoning, epidemiology, self-poisoning. Correspondence: Gudborg Audur Gudjonsdottir, firstname.lastname@example.org.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of articular hypermobility and its relationship to musculoskeletal pain in Icelandic 12-yr-olds, and to obtain baseline data for a prospective study on the subject. METHODS: A total of 267 12-yr-olds were examined for articular hypermobility by the Beighton criteria. The children also answered a questionnaire concerning musculoskeletal pain and injuries, sports and musical activity. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypermobility (defined as >/=4 Beighton criteria) was 40.5% in girls and 12.9% in boys. Despite slight trends for hypermobile subjects to be less active in sports and to report more joint pain, no correlation could be found between hypermobility and musculoskeletal symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: An unusually marked sex difference in hypermobility exists among Icelandic 12-yr-olds, but hypermobility does not seem to affect joint symptoms or leisure activities at this age.
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that atopic disorders may begin in intra-uterine life; however, studies of birth characteristics and atopy show conflicting results. METHODS: We wanted to investigate the association of birth weight and head circumference with serum total or specific IgE, allergic rhinitis or eczema while addressing the influence of demographic and geographical factors. In this historic prospective cohort study, data were collected from birth records for 1683 men and women born in 1947-1973, from six Nordic-Baltic populations participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Blood tests for the measurement of serum total and specific IgE were available for 1494 subjects. In multiple regression analyses, adjustments were made for birth length, gender, age, study centre, adult body mass index, level of education, parental and adult smoking. RESULTS There was no association of birth weight (n=1230) and head circumference (n=285) with serum total IgE, specific IgE antibodies, allergic rhinitis or eczema. There were neither significant interactions by gender or age, nor heterogeneity between the study centres in the analyses of birth weight and adult atopy. CONCLUSION: Birth size was not associated with atopy among adults in this large Nordic-Baltic population study.
To explore the human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 allele frequency in Dupuytren's disease (DD).
HLA-DRB1 genotypes were analysed by sequence-specific primers (SSPs) in samples collected from 172 men participating in a nested case-control study on the clinical manifestations and progression of DD. Of those, 121 had signs of DD while 51 did not. Of the 121 men with DD, 49 had contracted fingers or had been operated on, while 72 had nodules or fibrous cords in the palms. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) were used to evaluate the results.
The HLA-DRB1*01 allele was observed in 26 of the 121 affected men (23.7%) but in only four of the controls (7.8%) (OR 3.22, 95% CI 1.06-9.75). The HLA-DRB1*01 allele frequency in those affected was 11%, while in the control group it was 4% (OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.05-9.03).
This observation indicates a possible association of HLA-DRB1*01 with DD, but further studies are needed for confirmation.
Biliary tract malignancies are uncommon and few population-based studies are available.
This nationwide population-based study in Iceland included all patients diagnosed with intra- and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder and ampullary cancer from 1984 to 2012. Patients were identified through the Icelandic Cancer Registry. Clinical information was obtained from patient records.
Overall 245 patients were identified: 38 had intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, 66 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, 73 gallbladder cancer (GBC) and 68 ampullary cancer. Overall incidence for bile tract malignancies was 1-3 per 100,000 person-years and less than 1 by sub-type. The overall bile tract malignancies in males increased from 1.3 (95% CI 0.8-1.8) to 2.5 (1.9-3.1) per 100,000 inhabitants. The incidence of GBC among females decreased from 1.1 (0.7-1.5) to 0.5 (0.2-0.7). Surgery decreased for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (56 to 23%, p?=?.027), ampullary cancer (80 to 48%, p?=?.03) and overall bile tract cancer (61 to 32%, p?
BACKGROUND: Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other potentially carcinogenic elements during work and leisure activities. HYPOTHESIS: Work-related factors affect cancer pattern of the pilots. METHODS: A cohort of 10,051 male and 160 female airline pilots from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden was followed for cancer incidence through the national cancer registries. There were 177,000 person-years at follow-up, 51,000 of them accumulated after 20 yr since the time of first employment. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed over expected numbers of cases based on national cancer incidence rates. Dose-response analyses were done with Poisson regression method. RESULTS: Among male pilots, there were 466 cases of cancer diagnosed vs. 456 expected. The only significantly increased SIRs concerned skin cancer: melanoma 2.3 (95% CI 1.7-3.0), squamous cell cancer 2.1 (1.7-2.8), and basal cell carcinoma 2.5 (1.9-3.2). The relative risk of skin cancers increased with the time since first employment, the number of flight hours, and the estimated radiation dose. There was an increase in the relative risk of prostate cancer with increasing number of flight hours in long-distance aircraft (p trend 0.01). No increased incidence was found for acute myeloid leukemia or brain cancer which were of interest a priori based on earlier studies. CONCLUSIONS: This large study, based on reliable cancer incidence data, showed an increased incidence of skin cancer. It did not indicate a marked increase in cancer risk attributable to cosmic radiation although some influence of cosmic radiation on skin cancer cannot be entirely excluded.
Residents of geothermal areas have increased incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast, prostate, and kidney cancers. The aim was to study whether this is also reflected in cancer mortality among the population using geothermal hot water for space heating, washing, and showering.
The follow-up was from 1981 to 2009. Personal identifier of those 5-64 years of age was used in record linkage with nationwide death registry. Thus, vital and emigration status was ascertained. The exposed population was defined as inhabitants of communities with district heating generated from geothermal wells since 1972. Reference populations were inhabitants of other areas with different degrees of volcanic/geothermal activity. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were adjusted for age, gender, education, housing, reproductive factors and smoking habits.
Among those using geothermal water, the HR for all causes of death was 0.98 (95% CI 0.91-1.05) as compared with cold reference area. The HR for breast cancer was 1.53 (1.04-2.24), prostate cancer 1.74 (1.21-2.52), kidney cancer 1.78 (1.03-3.07), and for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 2.01 (1.05-3.38). HR for influenza was 3.36 (1.32-8.58) and for suicide 1.49 (1.03-2.17).
The significant excess mortality risk of breast and prostate cancers, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma confirmed the results of similarly designed studies in Iceland on cancer incidence among populations from high-temperature geothermal areas and users of geothermal hot water. The risk is not confined to cancers with good prognosis, but also concerns fatal cancers. Further studies are needed on the chemical and physical content of the water and the environment emissions in geothermal areas.