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Adenocarcinoma of the prostate in Iceland: a population-based study of stage, Gleason grade, treatment and long-term survival in males diagnosed between 1983 and 1987.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature81046
Source
Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2006;40(4):265-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Jonsson E.
Sigbjarnarson H P
Tomasson J.
Benediktsdottir K R
Tryggvadottir L.
Hrafnkelsson J.
Olafsdottir E J
Tulinius H.
Jonasson J G
Author Affiliation
Department of Urology, Landspitali University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. eirikjon@lanspitali.is
Source
Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2006;40(4):265-71
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenocarcinoma - diagnosis - epidemiology - pathology - therapy
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Neoplasm Staging
Prostatic Neoplasms - diagnosis - epidemiology - pathology - therapy
Registries
Survival Analysis
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate adenocarcinoma of the prostate in a single population with an extended follow-up period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using the Icelandic Cancer Registry, we identified all Icelandic men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1983 and 1987. Disease stage, initial treatment and follow-up information were obtained from hospital records and death certificates. A critical evaluation was made of the accuracy of the death certificates regarding prostate cancer. All available histology information was reviewed and graded according to the Gleason grading system. RESULTS: A total of 414 men were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Of these, 370 were alive at the time of diagnosis and stage could be determined. Four stage groups were defined: focal incidental (n=50); localized (n=164); local advanced (n=32); and metastatic disease (n=124). The mean age at diagnosis was 74.4 years (range 53-94 years). The combined Gleason score was 2-5 in 89, 6-7 in 117, 8-10 in 117 and unknown in 47 cases. The median follow-up period for the group was 6.15 years (range 0.3-19.8 years). Thirty men received treatment with curative intent: radiation therapy, n=20; and radical prostatectomy, n=10. A total of 334 patients died during the follow-up period, of whom 168 (50%) died of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer-specific survival at 10 and 15 years was 100% and 90.6%, respectively for focal incidental cancer; 73.1% and 60.8% for men with localized disease; 23.4% and 11.7% for local advanced disease; and 6.81% and 5.45% for metastatic disease. A Cox multivariate analysis showed age, stage and Gleason score to be independent predictors of prostate cancer death. A total of 104 patients with localized disease and a Gleason score of
PubMed ID
16916765 View in PubMed
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Adult height associates with angiographic extent of coronary artery disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287853
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2016 Nov;254:237-241
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2016
Author
Eythor Bjornsson
Gudmundur Thorgeirsson
Thorarinn Gudnason
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2016 Nov;254:237-241
Date
Nov-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Atherosclerosis - diagnostic imaging - physiopathology
Body Height
Coronary Angiography
Coronary Artery Disease - diagnostic imaging - physiopathology
Female
Humans
Iceland
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Registries
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Sample Size
Sex Factors
Sweden
Abstract
Shorter stature is an established risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD), but less is known about its association with extent of the disease.
We assessed the relationship between self-reported height and angiographic findings in 7706 men and 3572 women identified from a nationwide coronary angiography registry in Iceland.
After adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, a standard deviation decrease in height associated with a greater likelihood of significant CAD (defined as =50% luminal diameter stenosis) both in men (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj]: 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18, 1.31; p = 3.2 × 10-16) and women (ORadj = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.18; p = 0.012). In partial proportional odds logistic regression models, a standard deviation decrease in height was associated with higher odds of having greater extent of CAD in men (ORadj = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.25; p = 1.5 × 10-16) and women (ORadj = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.16; p = 0.014). When limited to patients with significant CAD, the association was statistically significant in men (ORadj = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.14; p = 0.0022) but not in women (p = 0.56).
Our findings show that shorter stature is associated with greater extent of coronary atherosclerosis in a large unselected population of individuals undergoing coronary angiography. This relationship appears to be sex-dependent, with stronger effects in men than in women.
PubMed ID
27582429 View in PubMed
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Age, academic performance, and stimulant prescribing for ADHD: a nationwide cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118820
Source
Pediatrics. 2012 Dec;130(6):1012-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2012
Author
Helga Zoëga
Unnur A Valdimarsdóttir
Sonia Hernández-Díaz
Author Affiliation
Institute for Translational Epidemiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA. helga.zoega@mssm.edu
Source
Pediatrics. 2012 Dec;130(6):1012-8
Date
Dec-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Achievement
Age Factors
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology
Central Nervous System Stimulants - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Child
Cohort Studies
Educational Measurement
Female
Humans
Iceland
Language Arts
Male
Mathematics - education
Physician's Practice Patterns - statistics & numerical data
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Abstract
We evaluated whether younger age in class is associated with poorer academic performance and an increased risk of being prescribed stimulants for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
This was a nationwide population-based cohort study, linking data from national registries of prescribed drugs and standardized scholastic examinations. The study population comprised all children born in 1994-1996 who took standardized tests in Iceland at ages 9 and 12 (n = 11 785). We estimated risks of receiving low test scores (0-10th percentile) and being prescribed stimulants for ADHD. Comparisons were made according to children's relative age in class.
Mean test scores in mathematics and language arts were lowest among the youngest children in the fourth grade, although the gap attenuated in the seventh grade. Compared with the oldest third, those in the youngest third of class had an increased relative risk of receiving a low test score at age 9 for mathematics (1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-2.2) and language arts (1.8; 95% CI 1.6-2.1), whereas at age 12, the relative risk was 1.6 in both subjects. Children in the youngest third of class were 50% more likely (1.5; 95% CI 1.3-1.8) than those in the oldest third to be prescribed stimulants between ages 7 and 14.
Relative age among classmates affects children's academic performance into puberty, as well as their risk of being prescribed stimulants for ADHD. This should be taken into account when evaluating children's performance and behavior in school to prevent unnecessary stimulant treatment.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23166340 View in PubMed
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Source
Laeknabladid. 2006 Oct;92(10):685-96
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2006
Author
Helgadóttir Gudleif
Jónasson Fridbert
Sigurdsson Haraldur
Magnússon Kristinn P
Stefánsson Einar
Source
Laeknabladid. 2006 Oct;92(10):685-96
Date
Oct-2006
Language
Icelandic
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Angiogenesis Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Blindness - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10
Counseling
Disease Progression
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Health services needs and demand
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Incidence
Lasers - therapeutic use
Macular Degeneration - complications - epidemiology - genetics - therapy
Middle Aged
Registries
Risk factors
Vitamins - therapeutic use
Zinc Compounds - therapeutic use
Abstract
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the main reason for blindness today in the western hemisphere. According to Björn Olafsson, who was the first ophthalmologist in Iceland a century ago, this disease was not found in Iceland. In the blindness-registry of 1950 6% blindness was due to this disease. Today, AMD is responsible for 54% of legal blindness in Iceland. The incidence of the disease increases with age. Heredity and environmental factors are thought to influence its etiology. Indirect methods, including twin studies and increased frequency of this disease in some families, have demonstrated that hereditary factors may be important. This has been confirmed recently by demonstrating that genes on chromosome 1 and chromosome10 play a role. This disease is classified as early stage, with drusen and pigmentary changes and insignificant visual loss. Treatment options for this stage are limited. The use of vitamin E and C and Zinc has, however, been shown to delay its progress. The second and end stage involves visual loss, either as a dry form with pigment epithelial atrophy or wet form, with new vessel formation. Treatment options for the dry form are limited. The second form is more common in Iceland than in other countries. Treatment options for the wet form have increased. Localised laser and drug treatment to neovascular membranes, either alone or as a combination treatment with drugs that have anti-proliferate effect on new vessels (anti-VEGF) are increasingly used. New treatment methods are also used in assisting those that are already visually handicapped. The use of computers is increasing as are the patients' computer skills. As the number of the elderly increases, AMD will be an increasing health problem in Iceland as in other Western countries. It is therefore important to improve the treatment options and the service and counselling of patients.
PubMed ID
17062902 View in PubMed
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An interactive central database of vaccinations in Iceland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature86489
Source
Euro Surveill. 2008 Jan 10;13(2)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-10-2008
Author
Gudmundsdottir E.
Briem H.
Author Affiliation
Health Security and Infectious Disease Control, Directorate of Health Reykjavik, Iceland. thorolfur@Landlaeknir.is
Source
Euro Surveill. 2008 Jan 10;13(2)
Date
Jan-10-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Databases, Factual
Humans
Iceland
Information Storage and Retrieval
Pilot Projects
Registries
Reproducibility of Results
User-Computer Interface
Vaccination - statistics & numerical data
PubMed ID
18445387 View in PubMed
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Association of air pollution and use of glyceryl trinitrate against angina pectoris: a population-based case-crossover study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114282
Source
Environ Health. 2013;12:38
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Ragnhildur Gudrun Finnbjornsdottir
Helga Zoëga
Orn Olafsson
Throstur Thorsteinsson
Vilhjalmur Rafnsson
Author Affiliation
Center of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.
Source
Environ Health. 2013;12:38
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Angina Pectoris - chemically induced - drug therapy - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Cross-Over Studies
Environmental monitoring
Female
Humans
Hydrogen Sulfide - analysis - toxicity
Iceland - epidemiology
Inhalation Exposure
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis - toxicity
Nitroglycerin - therapeutic use
Ozone - analysis - toxicity
Particulate Matter - analysis - toxicity
Registries
Seasons
Urban Population
Vasodilator Agents - therapeutic use
Abstract
Ambient air pollution has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In Reykjavik, Iceland, air pollutant concentrations exceed official health limits several times every year. The aim was to study the association of concentrations of NO2, O3, PM10, and H2S in the Reykjavik capital area with the dispensing of anti-angina pectoris medication, glyceryl trinitrate to the inhabitants.
Data on daily dispensing of glyceryl trinitrate, were retrieved from the Icelandic Medicines Registry. Data on hourly concentrations of NO2, O3, PM10, and H2S were obtained from the Environment Agency of Iceland. A case-crossover design was used, based on the dispensing of glyceryl trinitrate to 5,246 individuals (=18 years) between 2005 and 2009.
For every 10 µg/m3 increase of NO2 and O3 3-day mean concentrations, the odds ratio (OR) for daily dispensing of glyceryl trinitrates was 1.136 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.069-1.207) and 1.094 (95% CI 1.029-1.163) at lag 0, and OR was 1.096 (95% CI 1.029-1.168) and 1.094 (95% CI 1.028-1.166) at lag 1, respectively.
These findings suggest that NO2 and O3 ambient air concentrations may adversely affect cardiovascular health, as measured by the dispensing of glyceryl trinitrates for angina pectoris. Further, the findings suggest that data on the dispensing of medication may be a valuable health indicator when studying the effect of air pollution on cardiovascular morbidity.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23631813 View in PubMed
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Associations between three types of maternal bacterial infection and risk of leukemia in the offspring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature16817
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2005 Oct 1;162(7):662-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1-2005
Author
Matti Lehtinen
Helga M Ogmundsdottir
Aini Bloigu
Timo Hakulinen
Elina Hemminki
Margret Gudnadottir
Anne Kjartansdottir
Jorma Paavonen
Eero Pukkala
Hrafn Tulinius
Tuula Lehtinen
Pentti Koskela
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland. llmale@uta.fi
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2005 Oct 1;162(7):662-7
Date
Oct-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age of Onset
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Chlamydia Infections - epidemiology
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Helicobacter Infections - epidemiology
Helicobacter pylori
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Immunoglobulin G - analysis
Immunoglobulin M - analysis
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute - epidemiology - microbiology
Logistic Models
Pneumonia, Mycoplasma - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - epidemiology - microbiology
Pregnancy Trimester, First
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
A case-control study was nested within two maternity cohorts with a total of 7 million years of follow-up for assessment of the role of bacterial infections in childhood leukemia. Offspring of 550,000 mothers in Finland and Iceland were combined to form a joint cohort that was followed for cancer up to age 15 years during 1975-1997 through national cancer registries. For each index mother-case pair, three or four matched control mother-control pairs were identified from population registers. First-trimester serum samples were retrieved from mothers of 341 acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases and 61 other leukemia cases and from 1,212 control mothers. Sera were tested for antibodies to the genus Chlamydia, Helicobacter pylori, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for sibship size, were calculated as estimates of relative risk. M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin M appeared to be associated with increased risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.6), but the association lost statistical significance when the specificity of the immunoglobulin M was considered (OR = 1.5, 95% confidence interval: 0.9, 2.4). In Iceland, H. pylori immunoglobulin G was associated with increased risk of childhood leukemia in offspring (OR = 2.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 6.9). Since H. pylori immunoglobulin G indicates chronic carriage of the microorganism, early colonization of the offspring probably differs between Iceland and Finland, two affluent countries.
PubMed ID
16120707 View in PubMed
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Attitudinal barriers to cancer pain management in the Icelandic population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature86454
Source
Cancer Nurs. 2008 Mar-Apr;31(2):95-102
Publication Type
Article
Author
Gunnarsdottir Sigridur
Ward Sandra
Serlin Ronald C
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Nursing, University of Iceland, Landspitali-University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland. sgunn@hi.is
Source
Cancer Nurs. 2008 Mar-Apr;31(2):95-102
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Analgesics - therapeutic use
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health Surveys
Humans
Iceland
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - complications - physiopathology - psychology
Pain - drug therapy - etiology
Pain Measurement
Questionnaires
Registries
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate attitudinal barriers to cancer pain management in a random sample of 1,284 adults drawn from a national registry. Data were collected with a postal survey, and 599 (46.6%) surveys were completed. Barriers were evaluated with the Icelandic Barriers Questionnaire-II. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 45.28 (17.14) years, and 55.8% were women. Their mean (SD) length of education was 13.81 (4.27) years. Approximately half (55.6%) had personal experience of cancer; of those, 95.7% had a relative or a close friend so diagnosed, and in addition, 33 (10%) had been diagnosed themselves. The mean (SD) Icelandic Barriers Questionnaire-II score was 2.16 (0.77) on a scale of 0 to 5, with higher scores indicating stronger attitudinal barriers. Education was inversely related to barriers, and age was inversely related to 1 specific barrier (fatalistic beliefs). Those who had personal experience of cancer had lower barriers than those who did not. There seem to be substantial attitudinal barriers to cancer pain management among the general population of Iceland, and stronger than previously described in the United States. This points to the importance of addressing barriers among lay people because these barriers may interfere with good pain management practices.
PubMed ID
18490883 View in PubMed
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Autoimmune diseases in Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (ALiCCS).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283100
Source
Ann Rheum Dis. 2016 Sep;75(9):1622-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2016
Author
Anna Sällfors Holmqvist
Jørgen H Olsen
Lene Mellemkjaer
Stanislaw Garwicz
Lars Hjorth
Christian Moëll
Bengt Månsson
Laufey Tryggvadottir
Henrik Hasle
Jeanette Falck Winther
Source
Ann Rheum Dis. 2016 Sep;75(9):1622-9
Date
Sep-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Adult Survivors of Child Adverse Events - statistics & numerical data
Autoimmune Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - complications
Registries
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The pattern of autoimmune diseases in childhood cancer survivors has not been investigated previously. We estimated the risk for an autoimmune disease after childhood cancer in a large, population-based setting with outcome measures from comprehensive, nationwide health registries.
From the national cancer registries of Denmark, Iceland and Sweden, we identified 20 361 1-year survivors of cancer diagnosed before the age of 20 between the start of cancer registration in the 1940s and 1950s through 2008; 125 794 comparison subjects, matched by age, gender and country, were selected from national population registers. Study subjects were linked to the national hospital registers. Standardised hospitalisation rate ratios (SHRRs) and absolute excess risks (AERs) were calculated.
Childhood cancer survivors had a significantly increased SHRR of 1.4 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.5) of all autoimmune diseases combined, corresponding to an AER of 67 per 100 000 person-years. The SHRRs were significantly increased for autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (16.3), Addison's disease (13.9), polyarteritis nodosa (5.8), chronic rheumatic heart disease (4.5), localised scleroderma (3.6), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (3.4), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (3.1), pernicious anaemia (2.7), sarcoidosis (2.2), Sjögren's syndrome (2.0) and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (1.6). The SHRRs for any autoimmune disease were significantly increased after leukaemia (SHRR 1.6), Hodgkin's lymphoma (1.6), renal tumours (1.6) and central nervous system neoplasms (1.4).
Childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk for certain types of autoimmune diseases. These findings underscore the need for prolonged follow-up of these survivors.
PubMed ID
26555403 View in PubMed
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Biliary tract malignancies: a population-based study on incidence, prognosis and management of patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285119
Source
Scand J Gastroenterol. 2016 Dec;51(12):1520-1525
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2016
Author
Gunnar Juliusson
Jon Gunnlaugur Jonasson
Sara B Jonsdottir
Henrik G Garcia
Elinborg Olafsdottir
Pall Helgi Möller
Einar S Björnsson
Source
Scand J Gastroenterol. 2016 Dec;51(12):1520-1525
Date
Dec-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Ampulla of Vater - pathology
Biliary Tract Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality - therapy
Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures
Cholangiocarcinoma - epidemiology - mortality - therapy
Drug Therapy
Female
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Incidence
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Male
Prognosis
Registries
Sex Distribution
Survival Rate
Abstract
Biliary tract malignancies are uncommon and few population-based studies are available.
This nationwide population-based study in Iceland included all patients diagnosed with intra- and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder and ampullary cancer from 1984 to 2012. Patients were identified through the Icelandic Cancer Registry. Clinical information was obtained from patient records.
Overall 245 patients were identified: 38 had intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, 66 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, 73 gallbladder cancer (GBC) and 68 ampullary cancer. Overall incidence for bile tract malignancies was 1-3 per 100,000 person-years and less than 1 by sub-type. The overall bile tract malignancies in males increased from 1.3 (95% CI 0.8-1.8) to 2.5 (1.9-3.1) per 100,000 inhabitants. The incidence of GBC among females decreased from 1.1 (0.7-1.5) to 0.5 (0.2-0.7). Surgery decreased for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (56 to 23%, p?=?.027), ampullary cancer (80 to 48%, p?=?.03) and overall bile tract cancer (61 to 32%, p?
PubMed ID
27553174 View in PubMed
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145 records – page 1 of 15.