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Atmospheric deposition of V, Cr, and Ni since the late glacial: effects of climatic cycles, human impacts, and comparison with crustal abundances.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95899
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2003 Jun 15;37(12):2658-67
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-15-2003
Author
Krachler Michael
Mohl Carola
Emons Hendrik
Shotyk William
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Geochemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 236, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. krachler@ugc.uni-heidelberg.de
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2003 Jun 15;37(12):2658-67
Date
Jun-15-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Atmosphere - analysis
Chromium - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Geologic Sediments - analysis
Humans
Ice - analysis
Lead
Nickel - analysis
Scandium
Soil - analysis
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Stainless Steel
Time Factors
Vanadium - analysis
Abstract
Vanadium, Cr, and Ni accumulating in a Swiss peat bog since 12 370 14C yr B.P. have been measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after acid dissolution in a microwave autoclave. Strict quality control schemes were applied to guarantee the accuracy of the applied analytical methodology. The concentration gradients in the peat column and comparison with Pb indicate that V, Cr, and Ni are effectively immobile in the ombrotrophic section of the peat profile but that Ni is added to the minerotrophic peat layers by chemical weathering of the underlying sediments. The lowest metal concentrations were found during the Holocene climate optimum (5320-8230 14C yr B.P.) when "natural background" values averaged 0.55 +/- 0.13 microg g(-1) V, 0.76 +/- 0.17 microg g(-1) Cr, and 0.46 +/- 0.09 microg g(-1) Ni (n = 18); given the average bulk density (0.05 g/cm3) and accumulation rate (0.05 cm/ yr) of peat in this zone, the corresponding atmospheric fluxes are approximately 14, 19, and 12 microg m(-2) yr(-1) for V, Cr, and Ni, respectively. The highest concentrations of V, Cr, and Ni were found during the Younger Dryas cold climate event (centered at 10 590 14C yr B.P.) when background values were exceeded by about 40 times. Elevated concentrations and accumulation rates were also found at 8230 and 5320 14C yr B.P., which are consistent with the elevated dust fluxes recorded by Greenland ice cores. By far the greatest contribution of the three elements to the peat inventory is atmospheric soil dust, and the metal fluxes vary not only with climate change but also land-use history (especially the beginning of forest clearing for agriculture ca. 6 millennia ago). The V/Sc, Cr/Sc, and Ni/ Sc ratios were remarkably similar to their corresponding ratios in the earth's crust until the onset of the Industrial Revolution (240 14C yr B.P.), which largely validates the use of crustal concentrations for calculating enrichment factors (EF) for these elements. In modern samples, the EFs of V, Cr, and Ni reach maximum values between 2.4 and 4.1, relative to background; anthropogenic emissions are a more likely explanation of the elevated EFs than either plant uptake or chemical diagenesis. This study demonstrates the usefulness of peat bogs as archives of atmospheric metal deposition and underpins the potential of peat cores to help distinguish between lithogenic and anthropogenic metal sources.
PubMed ID
12854702 View in PubMed
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Continuous flow analysis method for determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus in ice cores.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264332
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47(21):12325-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Helle Astrid Kjær
Paul Vallelonga
Anders Svensson
Magnus Elleskov L Kristensen
Catalin Tibuleac
Matthias Bigler
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47(21):12325-32
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorption, Physicochemical
Biomass
Calibration
Dust - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Geography
Greenland
Human Activities
Humans
Ice - analysis
Phosphorus - analysis
Sodium Chloride - chemistry
Solubility
Uncertainty
Volcanic Eruptions - analysis
Weapons
Abstract
Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for all living organisms. Phosphorus is often present in nature as the soluble phosphate ion PO4(3-) and has biological, terrestrial, and marine emission sources. Thus PO4(3-) detected in ice cores has the potential to be an important tracer for biological activity in the past. In this study a continuous and highly sensitive absorption method for detection of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in ice cores has been developed using a molybdate reagent and a 2-m liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC). DRP is the soluble form of the nutrient phosphorus, which reacts with molybdate. The method was optimized to meet the low concentrations of DRP in Greenland ice, with a depth resolution of approximately 2 cm and an analytical uncertainty of 1.1 nM (0.1 ppb) PO4(3-). The method has been applied to segments of a shallow firn core from Northeast Greenland, indicating a mean concentration level of 2.74 nM (0.26 ppb) PO4(3-) for the period 1930-2005 with a standard deviation of 1.37 nM (0.13 ppb) PO4(3-) and values reaching as high as 10.52 nM (1 ppb) PO4(3-). Similar levels were detected for the period 1771-1823. Based on impurity abundances, dust and biogenic particles were found to be the most likely sources of DRP deposited in Northeast Greenland.
PubMed ID
24128116 View in PubMed
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Source
Philos Transact A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2003 Sep 15;361(1810):1871-83; discussion 1883-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-15-2003
Author
Ganopolski Andrey
Author Affiliation
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam 14412, Germany.
Source
Philos Transact A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2003 Sep 15;361(1810):1871-83; discussion 1883-4
Date
Sep-15-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cold Climate
Computer simulation
Ecosystem
Evolution, Planetary
Greenhouse Effect
Ice - analysis
Models, Theoretical
Oceans and Seas
Temperature
Abstract
Understanding the mechanisms of past climate changes requires modelling of the complex interaction between all major components of the Earth system: atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. This paper reviews attempts at such an integrative approach to modelling climate changes during the glacial age. In particular, the roles of different factors in shaping glacial climate are compared based on the results of simulations with an Earth-system model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2. It is shown that ice sheets, changes in atmospheric compositions, vegetation cover, and reorganization of the ocean thermohaline circulation play important roles in glacial climate changes. Another example of this approach is the modelling of two major types of abrupt glacial climate changes: Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events. Our results corroborate some of the early proposed mechanisms, which relate abrupt climate changes to the internal instability of the ocean thermohaline circulation and ice sheets. At the same time, it is shown that realistic representation of the temporal evolution of the palaeoclimatic background is crucial to simulate observed features of the glacial abrupt climate changes.
PubMed ID
14558899 View in PubMed
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Ice record of delta13C for atmospheric CH4 across the Younger Dryas-Preboreal transition.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80957
Source
Science. 2006 Aug 25;313(5790):1109-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-25-2006
Author
Schaefer Hinrich
Whiticar Michael J
Brook Edward J
Petrenko Vasilii V
Ferretti Dominic F
Severinghaus Jeffrey P
Author Affiliation
School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Post Office Box 3055, V8W 3P6, Canada. schaefeh@geo.oregonstate.edu
Source
Science. 2006 Aug 25;313(5790):1109-12
Date
Aug-25-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Atmosphere
Bacteria - metabolism
Carbon Isotopes - analysis
Climate
Ecosystem
Environment
Greenland
Ice - analysis
Methane - analysis - metabolism
Plants - metabolism
Time
Abstract
We report atmospheric methane carbon isotope ratios (delta13CH4) from the Western Greenland ice margin spanning the Younger Dryas-to-Preboreal (YD-PB) transition. Over the recorded approximately 800 years, delta13CH4 was around -46 per mil (per thousand); that is, approximately 1 per thousand higher than in the modern atmosphere and approximately 5.5 per thousand higher than would be expected from budgets without 13C-rich anthropogenic emissions. This requires higher natural 13C-rich emissions or stronger sink fractionation than conventionally assumed. Constant delta13CH4 during the rise in methane concentration at the YD-PB transition is consistent with additional emissions from tropical wetlands, or aerobic plant CH4 production, or with a multisource scenario. A marine clathrate source is unlikely.
PubMed ID
16931759 View in PubMed
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Isotope studies of hydrogen and oxygen in ground ice-experiences with the equilibration technique.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196629
Source
Isotopes Environ Health Stud. 2000;36(2):133-49
Publication Type
Article
Date
2000
Author
H. Meyer
L. Schönicke
U. Wand
H W Hubberten
H. Friedrichsen
Author Affiliation
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Research Unit Potsdam, Germany. hmeyer@ awi-potsdam.de
Source
Isotopes Environ Health Stud. 2000;36(2):133-49
Date
2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Calibration
Climate
Deuterium - chemistry
Humans
Ice - analysis
Mass Spectrometry - instrumentation
Oxygen Isotopes - chemistry
Paleontology
Postural Balance
Siberia
Abstract
Equilibration technique suitable for a large amount of samples is described for hydrogen and oxygen isotope analyses of ground ice, especially ice wedges, including the sampling strategy and the analytical procedure as well as the calibration of the Finnigan MAT Delta-S mass spectrometer in June, 1999. Since for future analyses of ice wedges, a higher sampling resolution with limited sample volume is required, the limit of the equilibration technique for small water sample sizes of between 0.05 and 5 ml was checked. For water samples smaller than 1 ml, corresponding to a molar ratio [H2O]/[H2] of smaller than 0.994, a balance correction has to be applied. The experimental errors due to partial evaporation during evacuation, the balance calculation of the isotope equilibration process, the linearity as well as memory effects of the mass spectrometer for samples with large differences in delta18O and deltaD are tackled in this paper. In the polar regions of Northern Siberia without Late Pleistocene and Holocene glaciation, ground ice is used as an archive for paleoclimate studies. First results of stable isotope measurements on ice wedges clearly show a shift towards heavier isotopes and thus warmer winter temperatures as well as a change in the source of the precipitation between Late Pleistocene and Holocene. These results indicate the high potential of ground ice for paleoclimate studies.
PubMed ID
11077928 View in PubMed
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Lead pollution recorded in Greenland ice indicates European emissions tracked plagues, wars, and imperial expansion during antiquity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294789
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 05 29; 115(22):5726-5731
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-29-2018
Author
Joseph R McConnell
Andrew I Wilson
Andreas Stohl
Monica M Arienzo
Nathan J Chellman
Sabine Eckhardt
Elisabeth M Thompson
A Mark Pollard
Jørgen Peder Steffensen
Author Affiliation
Division of Hydrologic Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV 89512; Joe.McConnell@dri.edu.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 05 29; 115(22):5726-5731
Date
05-29-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Armed Conflicts - history
Disease Outbreaks - history
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - history
Extraction and Processing Industry - history
Greenland
History, Ancient
Humans
Ice - analysis
Lead - analysis - history
Roman World - history
Silver - history
Abstract
Lead pollution in Arctic ice reflects midlatitude emissions from ancient lead-silver mining and smelting. The few reported measurements have been extrapolated to infer the performance of ancient economies, including comparisons of economic productivity and growth during the Roman Republican and Imperial periods. These studies were based on sparse sampling and inaccurate dating, limiting understanding of trends and specific linkages. Here we show, using a precisely dated record of estimated lead emissions between 1100 BCE and 800 CE derived from subannually resolved measurements in Greenland ice and detailed atmospheric transport modeling, that annual European lead emissions closely varied with historical events, including imperial expansion, wars, and major plagues. Emissions rose coeval with Phoenician expansion, accelerated during expanded Carthaginian and Roman mining primarily in the Iberian Peninsula, and reached a maximum under the Roman Empire. Emissions fluctuated synchronously with wars and political instability particularly during the Roman Republic, and plunged coincident with two major plagues in the second and third centuries, remaining low for >500 years. Bullion in silver coinage declined in parallel, reflecting the importance of lead-silver mining in ancient economies. Our results indicate sustained economic growth during the first two centuries of the Roman Empire, terminated by the second-century Antonine plague.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29760088 View in PubMed
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[Modeling the Propagation of Microbial Cells and Phage Particles from the Sites of Permafrost Thawing.]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289530
Source
Mikrobiologiia. 2016 Sep; 85(5):580-587
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2016
Author
D A Skladnev
A L Mulyukin
S N Filippoval
E E Kulikov
M A Letaroval
E A Yuzbasheva
E A Karnysheva
A V Brushkov
V F Gal'chenko
Source
Mikrobiologiia. 2016 Sep; 85(5):580-587
Date
Sep-2016
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Coliphages - physiology
Corynebacterium - physiology
Ice - analysis
Models, Biological
Movement - physiology
Organisms, Genetically Modified
Permafrost - microbiology
Phase Transition
Rheology - methods
Rivers - microbiology
Seasons
Siberia
Yarrowia - physiology
Abstract
A method is proposed for integral assessment of the propagation of microbial cells and viral parti- cles during seasonal thawing of relic ice wedge layers. The results of on-site and laboratory investigation car- ried out in the upper part of permafrost exposure at Mamontova Gora (Yakutiya, Russia) are presented. To increase reliability of the results, suspensions of two microbial species and two coliphage species were intro- duced as biomarkers directly on the surface of thaing ice and in the meltwater flow. Each of the four different model biological objects was shown to possess unique parameters of movement in the meltwater flow and is able to move 132 m in 25-35 min with the water flow.
PubMed ID
29364605 View in PubMed
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[Modeling the Propagation of Microbial Cells and Phage Particles from the Sites of Permafrost Thawing.]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289688
Source
Mikrobiologiia. 2016 Sep; 85(5):580-587
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2016
Author
D A Skladnev
A L Mulyukin
S N Filippoval
E E Kulikov
M A Letaroval
E A Yuzbasheva
E A Karnysheva
A V Brushkov
V F Gal'chenko
Source
Mikrobiologiia. 2016 Sep; 85(5):580-587
Date
Sep-2016
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Coliphages - physiology
Corynebacterium - physiology
Ice - analysis
Models, Biological
Movement - physiology
Organisms, Genetically Modified
Permafrost - microbiology
Phase Transition
Rheology - methods
Rivers - microbiology
Seasons
Siberia
Yarrowia - physiology
Abstract
A method is proposed for integral assessment of the propagation of microbial cells and viral parti- cles during seasonal thawing of relic ice wedge layers. The results of on-site and laboratory investigation car- ried out in the upper part of permafrost exposure at Mamontova Gora (Yakutiya, Russia) are presented. To increase reliability of the results, suspensions of two microbial species and two coliphage species were intro- duced as biomarkers directly on the surface of thaing ice and in the meltwater flow. Each of the four different model biological objects was shown to possess unique parameters of movement in the meltwater flow and is able to move 132 m in 25-35 min with the water flow.
PubMed ID
29364605 View in PubMed
Less detail

Nitrogen isotopes in ice core nitrate linked to anthropogenic atmospheric acidity change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104557
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Apr 22;111(16):5808-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-22-2014
Author
Lei Geng
Becky Alexander
Jihong Cole-Dai
Eric J Steig
Joël Savarino
Eric D Sofen
Andrew J Schauer
Author Affiliation
Departments of Atmospheric Sciences and Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Apr 22;111(16):5808-12
Date
Apr-22-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acids - chemistry
Atmosphere - chemistry
Greenland
Human Activities
Humans
Ice - analysis
Nitrates - analysis
Nitric Acid
Nitrogen Isotopes
Protons
Sulfates - analysis
Abstract
Nitrogen stable isotope ratio (d(15)N) in Greenland snow nitrate and in North American remote lake sediments has decreased gradually beginning as early as ~1850 Christian Era. This decrease was attributed to increasing atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic nitrate, reflecting an anthropogenic impact on the global nitrogen cycle, and the impact was thought to be amplified ~1970. However, our subannually resolved ice core records of d(15)N and major ions (e.g., NO3(-), SO4(2-)) over the last ~200 y show that the decrease in d(15)N is not always associated with increasing NO3(-) concentrations, and the decreasing trend actually leveled off ~1970. Correlation of d(15)N with H(+), NO3(-), and HNO3 concentrations, combined with nitrogen isotope fractionation models, suggests that the d(15)N decrease from ~1850-1970 was mainly caused by an anthropogenic-driven increase in atmospheric acidity through alteration of the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric nitrate. The concentrations of NO3(-) and SO4(2-) also leveled off ~1970, reflecting the effect of air pollution mitigation strategies in North America on anthropogenic NO(x) and SO2 emissions. The consequent atmospheric acidity change, as reflected in the ice core record of H(+) concentrations, is likely responsible for the leveling off of d(15)N ~1970, which, together with the leveling off of NO3(-) concentrations, suggests a regional mitigation of anthropogenic impact on the nitrogen cycle. Our results highlight the importance of atmospheric processes in controlling d(15)N of nitrate and should be considered when using d(15)N as a source indicator to study atmospheric flux of nitrate to land surface/ecosystems.
PubMed ID
24711383 View in PubMed
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Observed and modelled stability of overflow across the Greenland-Scotland ridge.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95492
Source
Nature. 2008 Sep 25;455(7212):519-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-25-2008
Author
Olsen Steffen M
Hansen Bogi
Quadfasel Detlef
Ã?sterhus Svein
Author Affiliation
Danish Meteorological Institute, Lyngbyvej 100, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. smo@dmi.dk
Source
Nature. 2008 Sep 25;455(7212):519-22
Date
Sep-25-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Atlantic Ocean
Computer simulation
Denmark
Greenhouse Effect
Greenland
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Ice - analysis
Models, Theoretical
Pressure
Scotland
Seawater - analysis
Water Movements
Abstract
Across the Greenland-Scotland ridge there is a continuous flow of cold dense water, termed 'overflow', from the Nordic seas to the Atlantic Ocean. This is a main contributor to the production of North Atlantic Deep Water that feeds the lower limb of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, which has been predicted to weaken as a consequence of climate change. The two main overflow branches pass the Denmark Strait and the Faroe Bank channel. Here we combine results from direct current measurements in the Faroe Bank channel for 1995-2005 with an ensemble hindcast experiment for 1948-2005 using an ocean general circulation model. For the overlapping period we find a convincing agreement between model simulations and observations on monthly to interannual timescales. Both observations and model data show no significant trend in volume transport. In addition, for the whole 1948-2005 period, the model indicates no persistent trend in the Faroe Bank channel overflow or in the total overflow transport, in agreement with the few available historical observations. Deepening isopycnals in the Norwegian Sea have tended to decrease the pressure difference across the Greenland-Scotland ridge, but this has been compensated for by the effect of changes in sea level. In contrast with earlier studies, we therefore conclude that the Faroe Bank channel overflow, and also the total overflow, did not decrease consistently from 1950 to 2005, although the model does show a weakening total Atlantic meridional overturning circulation as a result of changes south of the Greenland-Scotland ridge.
PubMed ID
18818655 View in PubMed
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15 records – page 1 of 2.